Worldwide, an estimated 2.1 million children were living with HIV infection, and an estimated 2000 new infections in children occurred each day, during 2003 . Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV represents the most common means by which children become infected with HIV. In the new millennium, the challenge is to reduce missed opportunities for prevention of transmission of HIV to children in the US and other resource-rich settings, and at the same time to extend the benefits of recent advances in prevention of pediatric HIV infection to resource-poor settings. This chapter will review the current epidemiology of HIV infection in children in the US, and briefly review the growing worldwide impact of HIV on children.
HIV/AIDS among children in the USA
HIV infection and AIDS reporting
Through June 2001, 8994 US children with AIDS were reported to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from all 50 states, Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, and the US Virgin Islands (Table 6.1) . Fifty-six percent of all cases were reported from only four states: New York (25%), Florida (16%), New Jersey (8%), and California (7%). The majority of AIDS cases (91%) and virtually all new HIV infections resulted from MTCT. Seven percent (7%) of children with AIDS acquired their infection through receipt of contaminated blood or blood products.