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Composition, bonding state, and electrical properties of CNx films formed by electro-chemical deposition using liquid acrylonitrile were studied. X-ray photoelectron spectra reveal that C, N, and O are major components of the deposited films. From analysis of C 1s and N 1s spectra, the major bonding state in the CNx film is attributed to a mixture of C≡N and partially hydrogenated C=N bond. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors incorporating the CNx insulating layers are fabricated to evaluate the electrical properties of the deposited films. The lowest dielectric constant k of the CNx film is determined to be 2.6 from the accumulation capacitance and the thickness of the film. It is demonstrated that the CNx film formed by electrochemical deposition is a promising low-k material for use in ultralarge-scale integration multilevel interconnections.
Electrochemical deposition of amorphous carbon (a-C) film is performed by applying a direct-current potential to substrates immersed in methanol. Both scanning electron microscopy and Raman results indicate that smooth and homogeneous a-C films are grown on specific substrate materials such as Si, Ti, and Al. Field emission measurements demonstrate excellent emission properties such as threshold fields lower than 5 V/μm. Field enhancement factors are estimated to be 1300–1500; these are attributed to local field enhancements around sp2 carbon clusters that are embedded in the a-C films. Emission properties of a-C films grown on Si exhibit a current saturation under higher applied fields. These saturation behaviors are explained by an effect of a potential barrier formed at the interface between a-C films and substrates. Since the interface barrier is reduced by formation of the Ti interfacial layer, an approach to use carbide formation at the interface is verified as useful to improve the emission properties of a-C films.
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