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Techniques for performing the Fontan completion procedure after Kawashima procedure have developed in recent years. This paper presents a case in which we performed an off-pump hepatic-to-azygos connection by autologous pericardial roll via thoracotomy as a modified Fontan completion. The operation wound was limited, and the short-term follow-up was satisfactory. Notably, it was found that the autologous pericardium might require a shorter period of anticoagulation treatment than what is needed for artificial prosthetic materials.
Using a localized perspective, this paper explores the gap between the eligibility criteria for a Beijing hukou (household registration) and the reality of successfully acquiring one. By comparing those who are eligible to apply with those who actually succeed in gaining a hukou, it reveals that hukou practices are operated locally to serve the city's development needs. It also reveals huge gaps between migrants, eligible applicants and hukou winners. Most migrants in Beijing are not eligible to apply for a local hukou. However, among those limited applicants who can apply, those with a postgraduate education and who serve the capital's political functions are more likely than others to win a hukou, an advantage not pointed out in government documents. These “hidden” rules are most likely set intentionally by the city so that it can maintain absolute control over hukou transfers; however, at the same time, they frustrate migrants who meet the stated requirements but who are in reality still unlikely to ever acquire a Beijing hukou. These findings open up a novel perspective for exploring the people–city nexus in China during the migration process and highlight the gaps between policy and reality for those who can apply for a Beijing hukou and those who actually win one.
Maternal supraphysiological estradiol (E2) environment during pregnancy leads to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the influence of oocyte exposure to high E2 levels on perinatal outcomes remains unknown. Thus, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to explore the effect of high E2 level induced by controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) on further outcomes after frozen embryo transfer (FET). The study included all FET cycles (n = 10,581) between 2014 and 2017. All cycles were categorized into three groups according to the E2 level on the day of the human Chorionic Gonadotropin trigger. Odds ratios (ORs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between E2 level during COH and pregnancy outcomes and subsequent neonatal outcomes. From our findings, higher E2 level was associated with lower percentage of chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth as well as increased frequency of early miscarriage. Preterm births were more common among singletons in women with higher E2 level during COH (aOR1 = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.22–3.06; aOR2 = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.33–3.06). Incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) was more common in both singletons (aOR1 = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.30–3.11; aOR2 = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.69–3.74) and multiples (aOR1 = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03–2.45; aOR2 = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.05–3.84) among women with relatively higher E2 level. No association was found between high E2 level during COH and the percentage of macrosomia or large for gestational age. In summary, oocyte exposure to high E2 level during COH should be brought to our attention, since the pregnancy rate decreasing and the risk of preterm birth and SGA increasing following FET.
Dynamic trajectory prediction is an important topic in the field of navigation and positioning. Due to the drawbacks of a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver, the trajectory of the position always lags behind the dynamic platform's actual position, especially in highly dynamic situations. In order to solve the prediction of a dynamic trajectory, a generalised extension extrapolated model is proposed in this paper. The model utilises the current motion state and a priori position data of the platform, combines the interpolation and fitting method, adds the angle information as a constraint condition and solves the platform position prediction. In this paper, the feasibility of the generalised extended extrapolation algorithm is analysed theoretically and practically. Simulation results show that the prediction error is within 0.2 metres and experimental results show that the algorithm still has high prediction accuracy when a land vehicle platform is turned through a large angle.
Clozapine treatment increases the risk of agranulocytosis, but findings on the epidemiology of agranulocytosis have been inconsistent. This meta-analysis examined the prevalence of agranulocytosis and related death in clozapine-treated patients.
A literature search in the international (PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE) and Chinese (WanFang, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Sinomed) databases was conducted. Prevalence estimates of agranulocytosis and related death in clozapine-treated patients were synthesized with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program using the random-effects model.
Thirty-six studies with 260 948 clozapine-treated patients published between 1984 and 2018 were included in the meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of agranulocytosis and death caused by agranulocytosis were 0.4% (95% CI 0.3–0.6%) and 0.05% (95% CI 0.03–0.09%), respectively. The prevalence of agranulocytosis was moderated by sample size, study quality, year of publication, and that of data collection.
The prevalence of clozapine-associated agranulocytosis is low. Agranulocytosis-related death appears rare.
Mastery of strengthening strategies to achieve high-capacity anodes for lithium-ion batteries can shed light on understanding the nature of diffusion-induced stress and offer an approach to use submicro-sized materials with an ultrahigh capacity for large-scale batteries. Here, we report solute strengthening in a series of silicon (Si)–germanium (Ge) alloys. When the larger solute atom (Ge) is added to the solvent atoms (Si), a compressive stress is generated in the vicinity of Ge atoms. This local stress field interacts with resident dislocations and subsequently impedes their motion to increase the yield stress in the alloys. The addition of Ge into Si substantially improves the capacity retention, particularly in Si0.50Ge0.50, aligning with literature reports that the Si/Ge alloy showed a maximum yield stress in Si0.50Ge0.50. In situ X-ray diffraction studies on the Si0.50Ge0.50 electrode show that the phase change undergoes three subsequent steps during the lithiation process: removal of surface oxide layer, formation of cluster-size Lix(Si,Ge), and formation of crystalline Li15(Si,Ge)4. Furthermore, the lithiation process starts from higher index facets, i.e., (220) and (311), then through the low index facet (111), suggesting the orientation-dependence of the lithiation process in the Si0.50Ge0.50 electrode.
Since 2010, Jankowski’s Bunting Emberiza jankowskii has been listed as ‘Endangered’ on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. However, because no comprehensive surveys had been conducted, it was not known whether undiscovered populations existed elsewhere, so the population status of the species could not be assessed accurately. The aim of this study was to assess the breeding distribution and population size of Jankowski’s Bunting in China. Fifty sites in Inner Mongolia, and Jilin, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Hebei Provinces were surveyed to locate suitable habitat and breeding populations of Jankowski’s Bunting. The surveyed sites included historical breeding distribution areas, wintering sites, and regions adjacent to historical breeding distribution areas. We confirmed that Jankowski’s Bunting has disappeared from most of its former breeding distributions, with the exceptions of Dagang, Xiergen and Tumiji. Additionally, 13 new breeding sites were discovered in Inner Mongolia. All currently known populations breed in Mongolian steppe-vegetation zones, with shrubs dominated by the natural Siberian apricot Prunus sibirica, indicating that this type of habitat is crucial for the survival of the species. Based on remote sensing, the suitable breeding habitat for Jankowski’s Bunting is estimated to be approximately 280 km2. The population size of Jankowski’s Bunting could range between 9,800 and 12,500 individuals, which is much higher than the numbers estimated in previous reports that were based on partial surveys. The suitable habitat remaining in Inner Mongolia would highly benefit from the implementation of the National Key Public Forest Protection Project. The population size of Jankowski’s Bunting is larger than previously estimated, but it is still threatened by habitat degradation and fragmentation, and our survey results reinforce the need for more research. The status of Jankowski’s Bunting in China still meets the IUCN criteria B2ab for an ‘Endangered’ species.
Very few recent studies are available that compare caregiver burden, sleep quality, and stress in caregivers of different types of dementia. We aimed to investigate caregiver burden, sleep quality, and stress in caregivers of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies, as compared with caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease.
This study was carried out from March 2011 to January 2014. In total, 492 dyads of patient and caregiver (frontotemporal lobar degeneration, n = 131; dementia with Lewy bodies, n = 36; Alzheimer's disease, n = 325) participated in this study. We compared patients with respect to the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and caregivers with respect to the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale.
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients presented significantly more neuropsychiatric symptoms compared to Alzheimer's disease patients. Caregivers of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients experienced significantly more burden compared to Alzheimer's disease caregivers. Furthermore, among caregivers of both frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients burden was predicted by the neuropsychiatric symptoms, PHQ-9 scores, and GAD-7 scores.
The frequency and severity of behavioral disturbances in patient and caregiver stress accounted for the increased caregiver burden, which suggests that frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies caregivers should receive more support than is currently available.
We provide an elementary method for exploring pricing problems of one spread options within a fractional Wick–Itô–Skorohod integral framework. Its underlying assets come from two different interactive markets that are modelled by two mixed fractional Black–Scholes models with Hurst parameters,
. Pricing formulae of these options with respect to strike price
are given, and their application to the real market is examined.
This study deals with the issue whether collectivism-oriented human resource management (HRM) system influences individual creative contribution to research teams in particular in an Asia-Pacific context. It is argued that, given certain environmental factors, such as high person-organization value congruence among team members and task interdependence, the collectivism-oriented HRM system should have a positive effect on individual creative contribution to the research teams. A multi-level theoretical model is proposed accordingly, which is then tested with data from 40 research teams and 168 individuals in Chinese universities. The results demonstrated that collectivism-oriented HRM helps to enhance individual creative contribution through the path of value congruence. Moreover, the relationship between value congruence and individual creative contribution was moderated by task interdependence. These findings offer novel insight into how an organization can develop its HRM system and improve individual creative contribution in research teams.
Lower and upper third molars of a proboscidean from the Tha Chang sand pits, Nakhon Ratchasima, northeastern Thailand, show a zygodont pattern. The crescentoids are less well developed than those of the type specimen of Zygolophodon gobiensis but similar to those of late Miocene specimens from south China assigned to Z. lufengensis and Z. chinjiensis. On the other hand, the loph(id)s are less oblique and the zygodont crests are less well developed than in Z. lufengensis and Z. chinjiensis. However, it is difficult to erect a new species for these specimens because their anterior loph(id)s are so deeply worn that the morphology of the conelets on these loph(id)s is unclear. Thus, we identify the specimens as Zygolophodon sp. Zygolophodon is known from lower and middle Miocene sediments in Africa while they are usually dated to the early–late Miocene in Europe, South Asia such as Pakistan, and Central and North China. Based on its apparent grade of dental evolution, the new material of Zygolophodon from Thailand is probably late Miocene in age. In addition, this discovery is the first record of a zygodont proboscidean in Southeast Asia.
Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder
(MDD) are likely to be caused by multiple susceptibility genes, each with
small effects in increasing the risk of illness. Identifying DNA variants
associated with schizophrenia and MDD is a crucial step in understanding
the pathophysiology of these disorders.
To investigate whether the SP4 gene plays a significant
role in schizophrenia or MDD in the Han Chinese population.
We focused on nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) harbouring the
SP4 gene and carried out case–control studies in 1235
patients with schizophrenia, 1045 patients with MDD and 1235 healthy
controls recruited from the Han Chinese population.
We found that rs40245 was significantly associated with schizophrenia in
both allele and genotype distributions (Pallele = 0.0005, Pallele = 0.004 after Bonferroni correction; Pgenotype = 0.0023, Pgenotype = 0.0184 after Bonferroni correction). The rs6461563
SNP was significantly associated with schizophrenia in the allele
distributions (Pallele = 0.0033, Pallele = 0.0264 after Bonferroni correction).
Our results suggest that common risk factors in the SP4
gene are associated with schizophrenia, although not with MDD, in the Han
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) was first discovered 50 years ago as an oncogenic gamma-1 herpesvirus and infects more than 90% of the worldwide adult population. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) poses a serious health problem in southern China and is one of the most common cancers among the Chinese. There is now strong evidence supporting a role for EBV in the pathogenesis of NPC. Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), a primary oncoprotein encoded by EBV, alters several functional and oncogenic properties, including transformation, cell death and survival in epithelial cells in NPC. LMP1 may increase protein modification, such as phosphorylation, and initiate aberrant signalling via derailed activation of host adaptor molecules and transcription factors. Here, we summarise the novel features of different domains of LMP1 and several new LMP1-mediated signalling pathways in NPC. When then focus on the potential roles of LMP1 in cancer stem cells, metabolism reprogramming, epigenetic modifications and therapy strategies in NPC.
Elderly females, particularly those carrying the apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-ε4 allele, have a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanism for this increased susceptibility remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of the ApoE genotype and gender on the proteome of synaptosomes. We isolated synaptosomes and used label-free quantitative proteomics, to report, for the first time, that the synaptosomal proteomic profiles in the cortex of female human-ApoE4 mice exhibited significantly reduced expression of proteins related to energy metabolism, which was accompanied by increased levels of oxidative stress. In addition, we also first demonstrated that the proteomic response in synaptic termini was more susceptible than that in the soma to the adverse effects induced by genders and genotypes. This suggests that synaptic mitochondria might be ‘older’ than mitochondria in the soma of neurons; therefore, they might contain increased cumulative damage from oxidative stress. Furthermore, female human-ApoE4 mice had much lower oestrogen levels in the cortex and treatment with oestrogen protected ApoE3 stable transfected C6 neurons from oxidative stress. Overall, this study reveals complex ApoE- and gender-dependent effects on synaptic function and also provides a basis for future studies of candidates based on specific pathways involved in the pathogenesis of AD. The lack of oestrogen-mediated protection regulated by the ApoE genotype led to synaptic mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, which might make older females more susceptible to AD.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
Understanding blood flow in human body’s cerebral arterial system is of both fundamental and practical significance for prevention and treatment of vascular diseases. The mechanism and treatment for the growth of daughter aneurysm on its mother aneurysm are not yet fully understood. Themain purpose of the present paper is to elucidate the relationships between hemodynamics and the genesis, growth, subsequent rupture of the mother and daughter aneurysm on the cerebral vascular. The intensified stents with different porosities and structures are investigated to reduce the wall shear stress and pressure of mother and daughter aneurysm. The simulation is based on a lattice Boltzmann modeling of non-Newtonian blood flow. A novel stent structurewith “dense in front and sparse in rear” is proposed,which is verified to have good potential to reduce the wall shear stress of both mother and daughter aneurysm. The simulation is based on a lattice Boltzmann modeling of non-Newtonian blood flow. A novel stent structurewith “dense in front and sparse in rear” is proposed,which is verified to have good potential to reduce the wall shear stress of both mother and daughter aneurysm.
Ketoacids (KA) are known to improve muscle mass among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on a low-protein diet (CKD-LPD), but the mechanism of its preventive effects on muscle atrophy still remains unclear. Since muscle atrophy in CKD may be attributable to the down-regulation of the Wnt7a/Akt/p70S6K pathway and the activation of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) and the apoptotic signalling pathway, a hypothesis can readily be drawn that KA supplementation improves muscle mass by up-regulating the Wnt7a/Akt/p70S6K pathway and counteracting the activation of the UPS and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in the muscle of CKD-LPD rats. Rats with 5/6 nephrectomy were randomly divided into three groups, and fed with either 22 % protein (normal-protein diet; NPD), 6 % protein (LPD) or 5 % protein plus 1 % KA for 24 weeks. Sham-operated rats with NPD intake were used as the control. The results demonstrated that KA supplementation improved protein synthesis and increased related mediators such as Wnt7a, phosphorylated Akt and p70S6K in the muscle of CKD-LPD rats. It also inhibited protein degradation, withheld the increase in ubiquitin and its ligases MAFbx (muscle atrophy F-box) and MuRF1 (muscle ring finger-1) as well as attenuated proteasome activity in the muscle of CKD-LPD rats. Moreover, KA supplementation gave rise to a reduction in DNA fragment, cleaved caspase-3 and 14 kDa actin fragment via the down-regulation of the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio in the muscle of CKD-LPD rats. The beneficial effects unveiled herein further consolidate that KA may be a better therapeutic strategy for muscle atrophy in CKD-LPD.
Common psychiatric disorders are highly heritable, indicating that genetic factors play an important role in their aetiology. The CACNA1C gene, which codes for subunit alpha-1C of the Cav1.2 voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel, has been consistently found to be the shared risk gene for several kinds of mental disorder.
To investigate whether CACNA1C is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia and major depressive disorder in the Han Chinese population.
We carried out a case–control study of 1235 patients with schizophrenia, 1045 with major depressive disorder and 1235 healthy controls. A tag single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1006737 along with another 10 tag SNPs in the CACNA1C gene were genotyped in all samples.
We found that rs1006737 was associated with both schizophrenia (Pallele = 0.0014, Pgenotype = 0.006, odds ratio (OR) = 1.384, 95% CI 1.134–1.690) and major depressive disorder (Pallele = 0.0007, Pgenotype = 0.003, OR = 1.425, 95% CI 1.160–1.752).
Our findings support CACNA1C being a risk gene for both schizophrenia and major depressive disorder in the Han Chinese population.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.