Restudy of the limestone slab containing the type suite of Arthricocephalus chauveaui Bergeron, 1899 (Trilobita), the type species of Arthricocephalus Bergeron, 1899, shows that specimens of three species, each representing a separate genus, are present on the slab and were likely included in the original concept of the species. Besides A. chauveaui, the slab contains specimens of Oryctocarella duyunensis (Qian, 1961) and Duyunaspis duyunensis Zhang and Qian in Zhou et al., 1977. Bergeron (1899) illustrated one exoskeleton from the type suite of A. chauveaui only and apparently based much of his written description on that specimen. This specimen was clearly intended to be the type specimen of A. chauveaui. Subsequently, Lane et al. (1988) designated another specimen, which was not originally illustrated, as the lectotype, and this specimen is referable to Oryctocarella duyunensis. As revised here, Bergeron’s illustrated specimen should be regarded as the lectotype of A. chauveaui. Such designation stabilizes the concepts of both Arthricocephalus and A. chauveaui. Arthricocephalites Qian in Lu et al., 1974 and Haliplanktos Blaker and Peel, 1997 are regarded as junior synonyms of Arthricocephalus. Oryctocarella Tomashpolskaya and Karpinski, 1961, which was previously regarded as a junior synonym of Arthricocephalus, is revived as a valid genus. Oryctocarella includes a number of species previously assigned to Arthricocephalus. The type species of both Arthricocephalus and Oryctocarella, together with related species, are described on the basis of new material.