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An organic polar hydrate was obtained through cocrystallization of 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT) and L(+)-tartaric acid (TA) from ethanol. Dehydration behavior of the obtained hydrate was investigated using variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermal analysis. Proton transfer from L(+)-TA to 2,4-DAT in both hydrate and dehydrated form was revealed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystal structures of both forms were determined using PXRD techniques. The similarities and differences between two crystal structures were analyzed and the role of water in the hydrate crystal structure was demonstrated.
The high-energy oscillating electric current pulse (ECP) technology was introduced to relieve the residual stresses in the small AISI 1045 steel specimens treated by the pulsed-laser surface irradiation. The high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief experiments were conducted to study the effectiveness of the high-energy oscillating ECP technology. In addition, the electroplasticity framework was developed based on the thermal activation theory to reveal the mechanism of the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief. The results show that the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief has good effects on eliminating the residual stress. Furthermore, the residual stress relieving mechanism of the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief can be attributed to the electric softening effect and the dynamic stress effect. The findings confirm that the significant effects of high-energy oscillating ECP on metal plasticity and provide a basis to understand the underlying mechanism of the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief.
The high-frequency vibration technology was introduced to relieve the quenched residual stress in the Cr12MoV steel based on the high-frequency vibration system that mainly consisted of an electromagnetic vibrator and an amplitude boost unit. The high-frequency vibratory stress relief (VSR) experiments were conducted to study the effectiveness of the high-frequency vibration technology. In addition, the high-frequency vibration plasticity model was developed based on the thermal activation theory to reveal the mechanism of the high-frequency VSR. The results show that the high-frequency VSR has good effects on eliminating residual stress, while the surface hardness for the Cr12MoV steel remains almost the same. Moreover, there are no changes in the grain size of the Cr12MoV steel during the high-frequency VSR, while the dislocation density for the Cr12MoV steel during the high-frequency VSR decreases by 27.21%. The decrease of dislocation density in the Cr12MoV steel is the essence of residual stress relaxation. The findings confirm the significant effects of high-frequency vibration on metal plasticity and provide a basis to understand the underlying mechanism of the high-frequency VSR.
This study investigates the institutional influence on the location strategies of Chinese cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) during the period 1985–2011 across 150 economies using Heckman's two-stage model. The results suggest that Chinese Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) are ‘shortsighted’ and show perverse behaviour towards host country risk when deciding on the location of host country and volume of investment undertaken through M&As, which may damage the firm's long-term profitability.
Tissue P systems are a class of bio-inspired computing models motivated by biochemical interactions between cells in a tissue-like arrangement. Tissue P systems with cell division offer a theoretical device to generate an exponentially growing structure in order to solve computationally hard problems efficiently with the assumption that there exists a global clock to mark the time for the system, the execution of each rule is completed in exactly one time unit. Actually, the execution time of different biochemical reactions in cells depends on many uncertain factors. In this work, with this biological inspiration, we remove the restriction on the execution time of each rule, and the computational efficiency of tissue P systems with cell division is investigated. Specifically, we solve subset sum problem by tissue P systems with cell division in a time-free manner in the sense that the correctness of the solution to the problem does not depend on the execution time of the involved rules.
An Electronic Navigational Chart (ENC) is a two-dimensional abstraction and generalisation of the real world and it limits users' ability to obtain more real and rich spatial information of the navigation environment. However, a three-dimensional (3D) chart could dramatically reduce the number of human errors and improve the accuracy and efficiency of manoeuvring. Thus it is important to be able to visualize charts in 3D. This article proposes a new model for future Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS) and describes our approach for the construction of web-based multi-resolution future ECDIS implemented in our system Automotive Intelligent Chart (AIC) 3D ECDIS, including multi-resolution riverbed construction technology, multi-layer technology for data fusion, Mercator transformation of the model, rendering and web publishing methods. AIC 3D ECDIS can support global spatial data and 3D visualization, which merges the 2D vector electronic navigational chart with the three-dimensional navigation environment in a unified framework and interface, and is also published on the web to provide application and data service through the network.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
Previous studies support Beck's cognitive model of vulnerability to depression. However, the relationship between his cognitive triad and other clinical features and risk factors among those with major depression (MD) has rarely been systematically studied.
The three key cognitive symptoms of worthlessness, hopelessness and helplessness were assessed during their lifetime worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent MD. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression.
Compared to patients who did not endorse the cognitive trio, those who did had a greater number of DSM-IV A criteria, more individual depressive symptoms, an earlier age at onset, a greater number of episodes, and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for melancholia, postnatal depression, dysthymia and anxiety disorders. Hopelessness was highly related to all the suicidal symptomatology, with ORs ranging from 5.92 to 6.51. Neuroticism, stressful life events (SLEs) and a protective parental rearing style were associated with these cognitive symptoms.
During the worst episode of MD in Han Chinese women, the endorsement of the cognitive trio was associated with a worse course of depression and an increased risk of suicide. Individuals with high levels of neuroticism, many SLEs and high parental protectiveness were at increased risk for these cognitive depressive symptoms. As in Western populations, symptoms of the cognitive trio appear to play a central role in the psychopathology of MD in Chinese women.
In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China?
Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview.
Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD.
Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD.
Ribonuclease P is among the first ribozymes discovered, and is the only ubiquitously occurring ribozyme besides the ribosome. The bacterial RNase P RNA is catalytically active without its protein subunit and has been studied for over two decades as a model system for RNA catalysis, structure and folding. This review focuses on the thermodynamic, kinetic and structural frameworks derived from the folding studies of bacterial RNase P RNA.
Avian influenza virus is acquiring the ability to cross the species barrier between birds and mammals. However, the genetic mechanism of this ability is not well known. We successfully rescued an influenza A virus A/Chicken/Guangdong/03 (H5N1), which is highly pathogenic to both SPF chickens and BALB/c mice, by plasmid-based reverse genetics. The rescued virus, R-A/Chicken/Guangdong/03 (R-CG), and the wild-type A/Chicken/Guangdong/03 (W-CG) were found to share similar biological properties, such as in titres of 50% egg infectious dose (EID50), 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) and intravenous pathogenicity index (IPVI). R-CG, like W-CG, is highly pathogenic in mice following natural route infection. Both R-CG and W-CG viruses can be isolated from many organs of mice such as brain, lung, kidney and spleen. As a result, the constructed R-CG reverse genetic system can be used as a tool in the investigation of the molecular mechanism of infection of the mammalian host by avian influenza virus.
As a member of the tribe Brassiceae, Eruca sativa, although a minor crop worldwide, is considered a valuable genetic resource for cabbage, rapeseed and other Brassica crops. Self-incompatibility (SI) in Brassica has been extensively studied, but information on SI in E. sativa is limited. Of six chemicals used to treat the stigmas to overcome SI in five E. sativa lines, gibberellin was the most effective. As gibberellin is well known for its ability to break dormancy and to promote cell elongation, its effectiveness may help to understand the mechanisms of SI. Urea and ammonium sulphate were also effective. These two chemicals are known to affect protein stability, which may help explain their effects on SI. Although table salt has been reported as being effective in overcoming SI in B. rapa, B. oleracea and B. napu, it was not effective in E. sativa. Sucrose and alcohol also had negligible effect. There was significant variation among the genotypes in SI intensity and response to chemicals, but the genotype–chemical interaction was not significant. The data presented in this paper add to our understanding of SI in E. sativa and may lead to a better use of this genetic resource.
Vavilov (1935) described China as the earliest and largest independent centre of origin of cultivated plants. Gansu Province occupies the geographic centre of China. With an area of 454,000 km2, latitudes ranging from 32°3′N to 42°57′N and elevations varying from 500 to 6200 m, the province has an extremely diverse climate and topography. Stretching 1653 km along the ancient Silk Road, Gansu also has a long history of agriculture (6000 years) and for centuries was exposed to dynamic cultural exchanges between the East and the West. The unique combination of these conditions allowed rapeseed to be introduced from Europe and the Middle East, to evolve over a long time of cultivation and to diversify to adapt to many types of ecological conditions and cropping systems in Gansu. Currently, rich genetic resources exist in Gansu for Brassica rapa, B. juncea, B. chinensis and Eruca sativa. Eight landraces are described to demonstrate the diversity of rapeseed genetic resources in Gansu. It is generally recognized that B. chinensis originated in China. Information provided in this paper suggests that Gansu and its adjacent regions could also be a centre of diversity for B. rapa and B. juncea.
We made photonic crystals composed of artificial opals infiltrated with ZnS semiconductor nanocrystals by using self-assembly and solvothermal methods. Scanning electron microscopy images show that the silica spheres exhibit a well-ordered arrangement and the ZnS nanocrystals grow homogenously inside the opal matrix and the as-synthesized ZnS nanocrystals reveal a cubic phase from X-ray diffraction pattern. Furthermore, the optical properties of the infiltrated opals with different ZnS filling ratio are also studied by transmission spectroscopy respectively. It is proposed that the position of the stop band can be easily designed by controlling the infiltration ratio of ZnS. These results demonstrate an effective and practical route to obtain high-performance photonic crystal structures.
Thin film strain gages based on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) are being developed to measure to static and dynamic strain at temperatures approaching 1500°C. These ceramic strain gages exhibit excellent oxidation resistance and high temperature stability, surviving more than 25 hours of testing in air at 1470°C. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) studies indicated that interfacial reactions between ITO and alumina can increase the stability of ITO at elevated temperature. Solid state diffusion of aluminum into the ITO at these temperatures can produce a very stable ITO/Al2O3 solid solution [1, 2]. To determine the nature of the interfacial reaction product, ITO films were deposited onto both Al2O3 and AlN surfaces and thermally cycled to 1500°C. AlN films were used to reduce/eliminate oxygen transport to the interface, so that aluminum-indium interactions alone could be studied. ITO films were deposited onto Al2O3 and AlN films, which were rf sputtered on platinum-coated alumina substrates. The resulting ESCA depth files showed that an interfacial reaction had occurred between the ITO and the Al2O3 and AlN. The presence of two new indium-indium peaks at 448.85 and 456.40eV, corresponding to the indium 3d5 and 3d3 binding energies were observed in both cases; i.e. the AlN and the Al2O3. These binding energies are significantly higher than those associated with stoichiometric indium oxide. In addition, aluminum doped ITO films were formed by co-sputtering from multiple targets and electrical stability of these films was compared to undoped ITO films over the same temperature range (25–1500°C) [1–4].
Ribonuclease P (RNase P) catalyzes the 5′
maturation of precursor tRNA transcripts and, in bacteria,
is composed of a catalytic RNA and a protein. We investigated
the oligomerization state and the shape of the RNA alone
and the holoenzyme of Bacillus subtilis RNase
P in the absence of substrate by synchrotron small-angle
X-ray scattering and affinity retention. The B. subtilis
RNase P RNA alone is a monomer; however, the scattering
profile changes upon the addition of monovalent ions, possibly
suggesting different interdomain angles. To our surprise,
the X-ray scattering data combined with the affinity retention
results indicate that the holoenzyme contains two RNase
P RNA and two RNase P protein molecules. We propose a structural
model of the holoenzyme with a symmetrical arrangement
of the two RNA subunits, consistent with the X-ray scattering
results. This (P RNA)2(P protein)2
complex likely binds substrate differently than the conventional
(P RNA)1(P protein)1 complex; therefore,
the function of the B. subtilis RNase P holoenzyme
may be more diverse than previously thought. These revisions
to our knowledge of the RNase P holoenzyme suggest a more
versatile role for proteins in ribonucleoprotein complexes.