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Whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar disorder are the same or different disorders lacks consistency.
To detect whether grey matter volume (GMV) and grey matter density (GMD) alterations show any similarities or differences between BPD and bipolar disorder.
Web-based publication databases were searched to conduct a meta-analysis of all voxel-based studies that compared BPD or bipolar disorder with healthy controls. We included 13 BPD studies (395 patients with BPD and 415 healthy controls) and 47 bipolar disorder studies (2111 patients with bipolar disorder and 3261 healthy controls). Peak coordinates from clusters with significant group differences were extracted. Effect-size signed differential mapping meta-analysis was performed to analyse peak coordinates of clusters and thresholds (P < 0.005, uncorrected). Conjunction analyses identified regions in which disorders showed common patterns of volumetric alteration. Correlation analyses were also performed.
Patients with BPD showed decreased GMV and GMD in the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex network (mPFC), bilateral amygdala and right parahippocampal gyrus; patients with bipolar disorder showed decreased GMV and GMD in the bilateral medial orbital frontal cortex (mOFC), right insula and right thalamus, and increased GMV and GMD in the right putamen. Multi-modal analysis indicated smaller volumes in both disorders in clusters in the right medial orbital frontal cortex. Decreased bilateral mPFC in BPD was partly mediated by patient age. Increased GMV and GMD of the right putamen was positively correlated with Young Mania Rating Scale scores in bipolar disorder.
Our results show different patterns of GMV and GMD alteration and do not support the hypothesis that bipolar disorder and BPD are on the same affective spectrum.
The Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) is globally distributed in late Cambrian sedimentary records but controversially heterogeneous in its magnitudes. Here we use multiple geochemical proxies to investigate the late Cambrian carbonates from the Tangwangzhai section in North China, which were deposited in a shallow coastal environment with three depositional sequences (S1–S3). Each sequence comprises a transgressive systems tract (TST) and a highstand systems tract (HST). The REE + Y and trace element records are consistent with the depositional condition and indicate that terrigenous influence was more significant in the TST than HST. δ13Ccarb and δ34SCAS are low in the TST relative to HST, consistent with the scenario that terrigenous inputs were profoundly aggressive to seawater by introducing 13C-depleted and 34S-depleted materials. Within the TST of S2, the SPICE excursion shows a scaled-down δ13Ccarb positive shift (∼1.7 ‰) relative to its general records (∼4–6 ‰); the corresponding δ34SCAS show no positive excursion. This ‘atypical’ SPICE record is attributed to enhanced 13C-depleted and 34S-depleted terrigenous influence during the TST, which would reduce the amplitude of δ13Ccarb excursion, and even obscure δ34SCAS excursion. Meanwhile the subaerial unconformity at the base of TST would also cause a partially missing and a ‘snapshot’ preservation. Our study confirms significant local influence to the SPICE records, and further supports the heterogeneity and low sulphate concentrations of the late Cambrian seawater, because of which the SPICE records may be vulnerable to specific depositional conditions (e.g. sea-level, terrigenous input).
The associations between growth during early life and subsequent cognitive development and physical outcomes are not widely known in low-resource settings. We examined postnatal weight and height gain through early life and related these measurements to the nutritional status and intellectual development of the same children when they were between 7 and 9 years old. Mothers had enrolled in an randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effect of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on birth weight. Their children were born in 2004, their height and weight were measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age and were followed up between October 2012 and September 2013 (at ages 7–9 years, n 650). Height-for-age, weight-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to describe the nutritional status, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children fourth edition was used to measure the intellectual function. Multilevel linear and logistic modelling was used to estimate the association between early growth and subsequent growth and intellectual function. After adjustment, weight gain from 6 to 12 months of age was associated with Full-scale Intelligence Quotient, Verbal Comprehension Index, Working Memory Index and Perceptual Reasoning Index. Weight gain during early life was associated with subsequent nutritional status. For every 1 kg increase in weight during the 0- to 6-month period, the OR for underweight, thinness and stunting at 7–9 years of age were 0·19 (95 % CI 0·09, 0·37), 0·34 (95 % CI 0·19, 0·59) and 0·40 (95 % CI 0·19, 0·83), respectively. Weight gain during the periods of 6–12 months of age and 18–24 months of age was also associated with a lower risk of being underweight. Weight gain during early life was associated with better growth outcomes and improved intellectual development in young school-aged children.
To investigate a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak event involving multiple healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; to characterize transmission; and to explore infection control implications.
Cases presented in 4 healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a tertiary-care hospital, a specialty pulmonary hospital, an outpatient clinic, and an outpatient dialysis unit.
Contact tracing and testing were performed following reports of cases at 2 hospitals. Laboratory results were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and/or genome sequencing. We assessed exposures and determined seropositivity among available healthcare personnel (HCP) cases and HCP contacts of cases.
In total, 48 cases were identified, involving patients, HCP, and family members across 2 hospitals, an outpatient clinic, and a dialysis clinic. At each hospital, transmission was linked to a unique index case. Moreover, 4 cases were associated with superspreading events (any interaction where a case patient transmitted to ≥5 subsequent case patients). All 4 of these patients were severely ill, were initially not recognized as MERS-CoV cases, and subsequently died. Genomic sequences clustered separately, suggesting 2 distinct outbreaks. Overall, 4 (24%) of 17 HCP cases and 3 (3%) of 114 HCP contacts of cases were seropositive.
We describe 2 distinct healthcare-associated outbreaks, each initiated by a unique index case and characterized by multiple superspreading events. Delays in recognition and in subsequent implementation of control measures contributed to secondary transmission. Prompt contact tracing, repeated testing, HCP furloughing, and implementation of recommended transmission-based precautions for suspected cases ultimately halted transmission.
Previously known to form only under high pressure synthetic conditions, here we report that the T′-type 214-structure cuprate based on the rare earth atom Tb is stabilized for ambient pressure synthesis through partial substitution of Pd for Cu. The new material is obtained in purest form for mixtures of nominal composition Tb1.96Cu0.8Pd0.2O4. The refined formula, in orthorhombic space group Pbca, with a = 5.5117(1) Å, b = 5.5088(1) Å, and c = 11.8818(1) Å, is Tb2Cu0.83Pd0.17O4. An incommensurate structural modulation is seen along the a axis by electron diffraction and high resolution imaging. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal long-range antiferromagnetic ordering at 7.9 K, with a less pronounced feature at 95 K; a magnetic moment reorientation transition is observed to onset at a field of approximately 1.1 T at 3 K. The material is an n-type semiconductor.
Very few recent studies are available that compare caregiver burden, sleep quality, and stress in caregivers of different types of dementia. We aimed to investigate caregiver burden, sleep quality, and stress in caregivers of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies, as compared with caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease.
This study was carried out from March 2011 to January 2014. In total, 492 dyads of patient and caregiver (frontotemporal lobar degeneration, n = 131; dementia with Lewy bodies, n = 36; Alzheimer's disease, n = 325) participated in this study. We compared patients with respect to the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and caregivers with respect to the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale.
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients presented significantly more neuropsychiatric symptoms compared to Alzheimer's disease patients. Caregivers of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients experienced significantly more burden compared to Alzheimer's disease caregivers. Furthermore, among caregivers of both frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients burden was predicted by the neuropsychiatric symptoms, PHQ-9 scores, and GAD-7 scores.
The frequency and severity of behavioral disturbances in patient and caregiver stress accounted for the increased caregiver burden, which suggests that frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies caregivers should receive more support than is currently available.
In the investigation of MgO–Y2O3–B2O3 system, six three-phase regions, five binary compounds, and one ternary compound MgYB5O10 were confirmed in the subsolidus phase relations. Single-phase powder sample of MgYB5O10 was successfully prepared through solution synthesis method. By using the Rietveld method from the step-scanning X-ray powder diffraction data, the crystal structure of MgYB5O10 was determined. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system with the space group P121/c1 and lattice parameters a = 8.5113(2) Å, b = 7.5892(2) Å, c = 12.2460(3) Å, β = 130.200(1)°, and Z = 4. The infrared spectrum of MgYB5O10 at room temperature demonstrates the existence of BO3 and BO4 groups. The UV–visible spectrum shows a wide absorption band within the range of 190–400 nm, while the absorption in the visible region is negligible. According to the electronic structure derived by first-principles calculations, MgYB5O10 is an insulator with a wide indirect energy band gap of about 5.95 eV. Layered structural characteristics, existence of one-dimensional YnO8n+2 chains, and the large band gap should be the immanent reason why MgYB5O10-based materials have exhibited outstanding performances in the luminescence field.
The Asian long-horned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae), is a wood-borer and polyphagous xylophage that is native to Asia. It infests and seriously harms healthy trees, and therefore is a cause for considerable environmental concern. The analysis of population genetic structure of ALB and sibling species Anoplophora nobilis (Ganglbauer) will not only help to clarify the relationship between environmental variables and mechanisms of speciation, but also will enhance our understanding of evolutionary processes. However, the known genetic markers, particularly microsatellites, are limited for this species. SSRLocator software was used to analyze the distribution and frequencies of genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR), to infer the basic characteristics of repeat motifs, and to design primers. We developed SSR loci of 2–6 repeated units, including 10,650 perfect SSRs, and found 140 types of repeat motifs. A total of 2621 SSR markers were discovered in ALB whole-genome shotgun sequences. 48 pairs of SSR primers were randomly chosen from 2621 SSR markers, and half of these 48 pairs were polymorphic containing 4 di-, 7 tri-, 2 tetra-, and 11-hexamer SSRs. Four populations test the effectiveness of the primers. These results suggest that our method for whole-genome SSR screening is feasible and efficient, and the SSR markers developed in this study are suitable for further population genetics studies of ALB. Moreover, they may also be useful for the development of SSRs for other Coleoptera.
This study attempted to investigate and validate whether epididymis cold storage could be a suitable alternative for short-term preservation of spermatozoa. Mouse cauda epididymides and spermatozoa were preserved at 4–8°C from 1 day to 6 weeks. From days 1 to 10, motility and fertility were daily examined when motility loss occurred. From week 1, spermatozoa were used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) at weekly intervals to test their fertility, and spermatozoa DNA integrity was determined by comet assay. We found that motility and progressive motility scores gradually decreased with storage time. In nearly all spermatozoa, DNA integrity was maintained from days 1 to 10, but the percentage of spermatozoa with damaged DNA significantly increased from week 2 to week 6. Spermatozoa retained fertility until day 6, although fertility gradually decreased after day 3. From week 1 to week 5, fertilization rates by ICSI were more than 82.69% but decreased gradually after week 3. We found that spermatozoa preserved in the epididymis at 4–8°C had progressively lower motility, fertility and proportion of undamaged DNA, but could still fertilize oocytes. However, all the parameters of cold-preserved spermatozoa were completely inferior to that from cold-preserved cauda epididymides. The results imply that cold storage of cauda epididymides could be conducive to short-term preservation of spermatozoa, and the cold-stored spermatozoa can resist DNA denaturation, which is necessary for maintaining reproductive ability.
Hydrophobic functionalized SBA-15 has been developed via postsynthesis modification with trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and used for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) removal. The adsorption and desorption performance of different SBA-15-TMCS under static and dynamic conditions were investigated. Experimental results indicated that all samples showed a highly ordered two dimensional hexagonal mesostructure, and the organic groups were chemically incorporated into the pore surface of SBA-15 substrate. Comparing with commercial silica gel and activated carbon, SBA-15-TMCS shows higher static adsorption capacities of n-hexane and 93# gasoline, good recyclability, lower water vapor adsorption capacity, higher dynamic adsorption capacity, and longer breakthrough time. The high adsorption efficiency and stability of SBA-15-TMCS are associated with their hydrophobic surface, uniform and large pore size, high surface area and pore volume. The designed SBA-15-TMCS with high VOC adsorption capacity and recyclability shows great potential for VOC removal.
Performance of a perovskite based solar cell is highly determined by the crystalline qualities of the perovskite thin film sandwiched between an electron and a hole transport layer, such as grain size and uniformity of the film. Here, we demonstrated a new hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) technique to synthesis high quality perovskite films. First, a PbI2 precursor film was spin-coated on a mesoporous TiO2 (m-TiO2)/compact TiO2 (c-TiO2)/FTO substrate in ambient environment. Then, purified CH3NH3I crystal material was evaporated and the vapor reacted with the PbI2 precursor film in a vacuum pressure/temperature accurately controlled quartz tube furnace. In this technique, high vacuum (2mTorr) and low temperature (100°C) were applied to decrease perovskite film growth rate and reduce perovskite film defects. After vapor reaction, the perovskite film was annealed at 100°C for 10min in 20mTorr vacuum to recrystallize and remove CH3NH3I residue in order to further improve crystal quality of the thin film. Crystal quality of this perovskite thin film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM and AFM results illustrate perovskite thin films synthesized by this technique have larger grain sizes and more uniformity (RMS 11.6nm/Ra 9.3nm) superior to most existing methods. Strong peaks shown in the XRD chart at 14.18°, 28.52°, 31.96°, which were assigned to (110), (220), (330) miller indices of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite crystal, indicate the complete reaction between CH3NH3I vapor and PbI2 precursor layer. High power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 12.3% and stable efficiencies under four hours illumination of AM1.5 standard were achieved by these solar cells. This vacuum/vapor based technique is compatible with conventional semiconductor fabrication techniques and high quality perovskite film could be achieved through delicate process control. Eventually, perovskite based solar cells could be mass produced in low cost for large scale applications by this novel technique.
This paper investigates the trajectory tracking of a Stewart platform, which is a typical multi-input multi-output nonlinear system, with unmodeled dynamics, parameter uncertainties, friction, and unpredictable actuator faults. An adaptive vector sliding mode fault-tolerant control law is derived to ensure the system is insensitive to uncertainties and drive the state variable errors of the closed-loop system to converge to the origin. Moreover, novel adaptive laws are proposed to update the upper boundary of uncertainty according to the actual system state, which greatly reduces the chattering of sliding mode control. Furthermore, velocity signals are estimated by introducing a simple nonlinear observer, resulting in the proposed controller requiring position measurements only. Finally, numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
In this paper, we focus on the unknown environments without artificial landmarks and features, such as disaster situations and polar regions. An approach to active exploration based on an on-line scheme for autonomous allocation of landmarks is proposed. Specifically, the robot carries along with itself some landmarks which are to be allocated during the exploration according to some heuristic rules. The utility of landmark allocation is analyzed and calculated. Then the active exploration is converted into a problem of multi-objective optimization. The objective function includes three weighted terms: the accuracy of localization and mapping, the coverage rate of the unknown environment and the utility of the allocated landmarks. By solving this optimization problem, control inputs of the robot are computed to guarantee that accurate localization, high-quality mapping and complete exploration can be achieved simultaneously. Moreover, supplementation and redundancy elimination of the allocated landmarks are executed to make a complete and non-redundant coverage for the environment. Finally, some landmarks, together with a device for allocating these landmarks, are developed. Both experiment and simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
The covalent attachment of cysteamine-functionalized polyaniline (PANI–NH2) nanofibers onto graphene oxide (GO) sheets in an aqueous medium is investigated for the first time. The functionalized PANI is covalently attached onto the GO surface by simple amidation in the presence of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide. The technique can be conveniently scaled up for bulk production. The hybrid nanomaterial is easily synthesized, has good thermal stability, and disperses well in a solvent. Characterization techniques (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy) indicate the successful binding of the functionalized PANI nanofibers onto GO.
A roast experiment was carried out by using vanadium stone coal from Hubei Province as object, in the condition of compound additive dosage is 6%, the effects of roasting temperature, roasting time and material size on vanadium lixiviate efficiency were investigated. Experimental results indicate that, for the vanadium stone coal from Hubei Province, at the condition of additive dosage is 6%, the ideal target of vanadium lixiviate efficiency 82.3% can be acquired in the optimum condition of roasting temperature at 850 oC, roasting time is 120 minutes, material size is minus 0.5mm.
Electron nanodiffraction from single crystal domain of La1-xCaxMnO3 with 0.5 ≤ × ≤ 0.8 is carried out to study the charge ordering phase transition in this system. The melting processes of charge ordering structure in samples with x = 1/2, 2/3 and 4/5 are observed in-situ by increasing temperature from 93K – 298K. During the phase transition, electron diffraction results show that the nearly commensurate low-temperature charge ordering structure continuously evolves to incommensurate structure with directly decreasing sizes of charge ordered area. The picture of this phase transition is confirmed by the real space imaging. The real space images clearly show the introduction of charge ordering defects during the melting process in this sample.