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A supercapacitor electrode featured with a voltage self-stabilizing capability is demonstrated by growing indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires on Ni foam. The ITO nanowires with a single crystal structure are prepared by using magnetron sputtering technique, and they can act as an active electrode material. Charging–discharging experiments are performed under different current densities, demonstrating a good rate capability. Using properly designing top and bottom double connection circuits, part of the electrode can be used as a resistance switch. An electrode that can function as a supercapacitor and a resistance switch is fabricated. Detailed characteristics confirm that the device not only exhibits high performance as a supercapacitor but also has good characteristics of resistance switching (RS). The specific capacitance is 956 F/g at the scanning rate of 10 mV/s, and the switching ratio as a bipolar resistance switch is as high as 102. The stabilization time of discharging voltage is nearly doubled longer than that without any RS function, revealing the potential application of our devices, which can be used as a supercapacitor with voltage self-stabilizing.
Animate stimuli are remembered better than inanimate stimuli. The proximate mechanism of this preferential retrieval of animate stimuli has not been clarified. The present study proposes an inhibitory control explanation for the advantage of the memory of animate stimuli. The retrieval practice paradigm is employed to examine the role of inhibitory control in animacy effect in two experiments. The results of Experiment 1 revealed a strong inhibitory effect on animate stimuli but was not reliable on inanimate stimuli, suggesting that animacy effect is not due to the insensitivity to the inhibitory control. The results of Experiment 2 show the absence of animacy effect when animacy is designed as a between-subject variable, suggesting that the memory of artifact may be influenced by the memory of animals. These findings are discussed using the inhibitory control account and suggest that the role of inhibitory control in animacy effect is to selectively inhibit the memory of other categories in order to facilitate the retrieval of animals, indicating that inhibitory control is, in part, responsible for the animacy effect.
Compared with traditional START Triage Method, the Sacco Triage Method is a new way to access death risk in disaster scenes. However, due to the difficulties in disaster medical research, there is still no evidence to prove which one is more effective.
To assess and compare the value of START Triage Method and Sacco Triage Method in the death risk assessment of transport and the one-month death risk assessment of the earthquake mass trauma patients.
A retrospective analysis was conducted on 1,612 patients who were transferred to the West China Hospital by assigning to different triage levels by Sacco Triage Method and START Triage Method respectively. Both of the triage methods were evaluated based on death cases on either during transport or in the emergency department, using the area under the receiver-operator curve.
For death during the transport and in the emergency department, the receiver-operator curve of two groups reflected as 0.721 and 0.649. For death in a consequence, the receiver-operator curve of the two groups was revealed as 0.667 and 0.519.
As an accurate triage method, the Sacco Triage Method may be used in a mass casualty incident. It is a more effective way than the START Triage Method for the evaluation of death risk assessment of the mass trauma patients.
To assess the effect of famine exposure during early life on dietary patterns, chronic diseases, and the interaction effect between famine exposure and dietary patterns on chronic diseases in adulthood.
Cross-sectional study. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Multivariate quantile regression and log-binomial regression were used to evaluate the impact of famine exposure on dietary patterns, chronic diseases and the interaction effect between famine exposure and dietary patterns on chronic diseases, respectively.
Adults aged 45–60 years (n 939).
‘Healthy’, ‘high-fat and high-salt’, ‘Western’ and ‘traditional Chinese’ dietary patterns were identified. Early-childhood and mid-childhood famine exposure were remarkably correlated with high intake of the traditional Chinese dietary pattern. Compared with the non-exposed group (prevalence ratio (PR); 95 % CI), early-childhood (3·13; 1·43, 6·84) and mid-childhood (2·37; 1·05, 5·36) exposed groups showed an increased PR for diabetes, and the early-childhood (2·07; 1·01, 4·25) exposed group showed an increased PR for hypercholesterolaemia. Additionally, relative to the combination of non-exposed group and low-dichotomous high-fat and high-salt dietary pattern, the combination of famine exposure in early life and high-dichotomous high-fat and high-salt dietary pattern in adulthood had higher PR for diabetes (4·95; 1·66, 9·05) and hypercholesterolaemia (3·71; 1·73, 7·60), and significant additive interactions were observed.
Having suffered the Chinese famine in childhood might affect an individual’s dietary habits and health status, and the joint effect between famine and harmful dietary pattern could have serious consequences on later-life health outcomes.
The effect of zirconium alloying on the crystal structures and mechanical properties of binary tungsten–zirconium alloys is investigated in this study using the first-principles method. Firstly, we investigate the cell volumes, lattice constants, and formation energies of binary W1−xZrx (x = 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.1875, 0.25, and 0.5) alloys. It is shown that binary tungsten–zirconium alloys maintain BCC structures. When the concentration of zirconium atoms is lower than 12.5%, the structures of binary tungsten–zirconium alloys can be thermodynamically stable. The elastic constants of binary tungsten–zirconium alloys are calculated based on the optimized atomic lattice. Then, the elastic modulus and other mechanical parameters are deduced according to the relevant formulas. It is shown that the mechanical strength of binary tungsten–zirconium alloy decreases with an increasing concentration of zirconium atoms, which is lower than the mechanical strength of pure tungsten metal. However, the mechanical strength of binary tungsten–zirconium alloys is higher than that of pure zirconium metal. In addition, zirconium alloying can be effective in improving the ductility of pure tungsten metal.
An all-fiberized and narrow-bandwidth master oscillator power amplification (MOPA) system with record output power of 4 kW level and slope efficiency of 78% is demonstrated. Tandem pumping strategy is tentatively introduced into the narrow-bandwidth MOPA system for thermally induced mode instability (TMI) suppression. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effect is balanced by simply using one-stage phase modulation technique. With different phase modulation signals, SBS limited output powers of 336 W, 1.2 kW and 3.94 kW are respectively achieved with spectral bandwidths accounting for 90% power of
0.025, 0.17 and
0.89 nm. Compared with our previous 976 nm pumping system, TMI threshold is overall boosted to be
5 times in which tandem pumping increases the TMI threshold of
3 times. The beam quality (
factor) of the output laser is well within 1.5 below the TMI threshold while it is ultimately saturated to be 1.86 with the influence of TMI at maximal output power. Except for SBS and TMI, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) effect will be another challenge for further power scaling. In such a high power MOPA system, multi-detrimental effects (SBS, SRS and TMI) will coexist and may be mutual-coupled, which could provide a well platform for further comprehensively investigating and optimizing the high power, narrow-bandwidth fiber amplifiers.
Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) effect is considered to be one of the main obstacles for power scaling in general-type fiber lasers. Different from previous techniques that aim at suppressing SRS, nonlinear fiber amplifier (NFA), which manipulates and employs the SRS for power scaling in rare-earth-doped fiber, is under intensive research in recent years. In this paper, the authors will present an all-round study on this new kind of high-power fiber amplifier. A theoretical model is proposed based on the rate equation and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), with random noise taken into account. By numerical solving of the theoretical model, the power scaling potential, heat analysis and advantages in suppressing the undesired backscattering light are quantificationally analyzed for the first time. Then two different types of high-power NFAs are demonstrated individually. Firstly, a laser diode pumped NFA has reached kilowatt output power, and the results agree well with theoretical predictions. Secondly, a tandem-pumped NFA is proposed for the first time and validated experimentally, in which 1.5 kW output power has been achieved. The authors also briefly discuss several new issues relating to the complex nonlinear dynamics that occur in high-power NFAs, which might be interesting topics for future endeavors.
A new helminthomorph millipede, Sinosoma luopingense new genus new species, from the Triassic Luoping biota of China, has 39 body segments, metazonites with lateral swellings that bear a pair of posterolateral pits (?insertion pits for spine bases), and sternites that are unfused to the pleurotergites. This millipede shares a number of characters with nematophoran diplopods, but lacks the prominent dorsal suture characteristic of that order. Other “millipede” material from the biota is more problematic. Millipedes are a rare part of the Luoping biota, which is composed mainly of marine and near-shore organisms. Occurrences of fossil millipedes are exceedingly rare in Triassic rocks worldwide, comprising specimens from Europe, Asia, and Africa, and consisting of juliform millipedes and millipedes that are either nematophorans or forms very similar to nematophorans.
Low-field magnetic stimulation (LFMS) has mood-elevating effect, and the increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with antidepressant treatment. We evaluated the effects and association with BDNF of rhythmic LFMS in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD).
A total of 22 MDD patients were randomized to rhythmic alpha stimulation (RAS) or rhythmic delta stimulation (RDS), with 5 sessions per week, lasting for 6 weeks. Outcomes assessments included the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD–17), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA), and the Clinical Global Impressions–Severity scale (CGI–S) at baseline and at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. Serum BDNF level was measured at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, and 6.
HAMD–17, HAMA, and CGI–S scores were significantly reduced with both RAS and RDS. RAS patients had numerically greater reductions in HAMD–17 scores than RDS patients (8.9 ± 7.4 vs. 6.2 ± 6.2, effect size [ES]=0.40), while RDS patients had greater improvement in HAMA scores (8.2 ± 8.0 vs. 5.3 ± 5.8, ES=0.42). RAS was associated with clinically relevant advantages in response (54.5% vs. 18.2%, number-needed-to-treat [NNT]=3) and remission (36.4% vs. 9.1%, NNT=4). BDNF increased significantly during the 6-week study period (p<0.05), with greater increases in RAS at weeks 4 and 6 (ES=0.66—0.76) and statistical superiority at week 2 (p=0.034, ES=1.23). Baseline BDNF in the 8 responders (24.8±9.0 ng/ml) was lower than in the 14 nonresponders (31.1±7.3 ng/ml, p=0.083, ES=–0.79), and BDNF increased more in responders (8.9±7.8 ng/ml) than in nonresponders (1.8±3.5 ng/ml, p=0.044). The change in BDNF at week 2 was the most strongly predicted response (p=0.016).
Rhythmic LFMS was effective for MDD. BDNF may moderate/mediate the efficacy of LFMS.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Genotype by environment (G x E) interactions for grain yield were investigated in 13 perennial rice (Oryza sativa L./Oryza longistaminata) derivatives over three sites and 2 years in Lao PDR. Genotype accounted for 29.0% of the total sum of squares, with environment and the G x E interaction responsible for 60.2 and 10.8%, respectively. Cluster analysis identified three environment and six genotype groups, which accounted for 49.7, 98.0 and 42.8% of the E, G and G x E sums of squares, respectively. Principal component axes 1, 2 and 3 accounted for 54.0, 30.6 and 11.7% of the G x E sum of squares, respectively, with PCA1 indicating yield potential, PCA2 timing of cessation of rainfall in the 2011 wet season, and PCA3 environmental stresses affecting regrowth in the 2012 wet season. Genotype groups differed in adaptation to these contrasting conditions. G6 (Line 213, 240 and RD23) was widely adapted to all environments, with G5 (Line 248) being especially adapted to the 2012 environments. G3 and G4 were neutral, though G3 (Line 53) showed some preference for the Na Pok environments. G1 and G2 were poorly adapted everywhere, with the tall and late G1 (Line 11) being especially poor at Na Pok 2011 in a dry finish. While yields were lower in 2012, all derivatives survived the dry season with access to life-saving irrigation. This is promising, as the annual rice RD23 was unable to ratoon under these conditions, and had to be re-sown. Importantly, Line 213, 240 and 248 yielded comparably to RD23 from regrowth in 2012. Development of perennial rice should target rainfed and especially upland environments.
Change mode and effects analysis (CMEA) is a powerful technique for measuring product flexibility toward future changes and diminishing the cost of redesign as well as shortening time to market. As a systematic methodology, it provides an in-depth view for the investigation of potential changes, causes, and effects in designs, products, and processes. Traditional CMEA determines the risk priorities of change modes by using change potential number, which requires the risk factors of design flexibility, occurrence, and readiness to be precisely evaluated. However, this is not always possible in real applications due to the uncertainty and subjectivity involved in the early design stages. It has been criticized much for its deficiencies in criteria weighting of the risk factors, change potential number calculation, and risk priorities determination of the change modes. This paper presents a systematic evaluation approach for determining a more rational rank of change modes by combining with the entropy weight method, rough number, and grey relational analysis. In this study, the entropy weight method is adopted to calculate the relative importance of risk factors. Rough number is presented to aggregate individual weights and preferences, and to manipulate the vagueness in the evaluation process. Then a rough number enhanced grey relational analysis is proposed to evaluate the risk ranking of change modes. Finally, a practical example is put forward to validate the performance of the proposed method. The result shows that the proposed change mode evaluation method can effectively overcome the shortcomings of traditional CMEA and strengthen the objectivity of product flexibility measurement.
Tiny, pelagic arthropods from the Anisian Luoping Biota exposed in two quarries near Luoping, Yunnan Province, China, represent the numerically most abundant organisms in the assemblage. They form the basis for definition of two, and possibly three, species referred to the order Lophogastrida, family Eucopiidae. Yunnanocopia grandis new genus new species and Y. longicauda n. gen. new species represent the oldest occurrence of mysidaceans in the fossil record. Their anatomy allies them with the Ladinian species Schimperella acanthocercus Taylor, Schram, and Shen, 2001, from Guizhou Province, China, which previously was thought to be the oldest lophogastrid, and with extant species of Eucopiidae. Their appearance in the Anisian represents one additional element of the early faunal radiation within the Luoping Biota following the end-Permian extinction event. Presence of well-preserved oostegites, along with other morphological features, documents a conservative bauplan expressed in Eucopiidae.
The high-energy oscillating electric current pulse (ECP) technology was introduced to relieve the residual stresses in the small AISI 1045 steel specimens treated by the pulsed-laser surface irradiation. The high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief experiments were conducted to study the effectiveness of the high-energy oscillating ECP technology. In addition, the electroplasticity framework was developed based on the thermal activation theory to reveal the mechanism of the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief. The results show that the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief has good effects on eliminating the residual stress. Furthermore, the residual stress relieving mechanism of the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief can be attributed to the electric softening effect and the dynamic stress effect. The findings confirm that the significant effects of high-energy oscillating ECP on metal plasticity and provide a basis to understand the underlying mechanism of the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief.
The high-frequency vibration technology was introduced to relieve the quenched residual stress in the Cr12MoV steel based on the high-frequency vibration system that mainly consisted of an electromagnetic vibrator and an amplitude boost unit. The high-frequency vibratory stress relief (VSR) experiments were conducted to study the effectiveness of the high-frequency vibration technology. In addition, the high-frequency vibration plasticity model was developed based on the thermal activation theory to reveal the mechanism of the high-frequency VSR. The results show that the high-frequency VSR has good effects on eliminating residual stress, while the surface hardness for the Cr12MoV steel remains almost the same. Moreover, there are no changes in the grain size of the Cr12MoV steel during the high-frequency VSR, while the dislocation density for the Cr12MoV steel during the high-frequency VSR decreases by 27.21%. The decrease of dislocation density in the Cr12MoV steel is the essence of residual stress relaxation. The findings confirm the significant effects of high-frequency vibration on metal plasticity and provide a basis to understand the underlying mechanism of the high-frequency VSR.
A large assemblage of small specimens of Tridactylastacus sinensis Feldmann, Schweitzer, and Zhang in Feldmann et al., 2012, from the Middle Triassic (Anisian) Luoping Biota, Yunnan Province, China, permitted cladistic analysis confirming their placement within Litogastridae in the superfamily Glypheoidea. Orientation of 86 specimens closely spaced on a single slab from one bedding surface revealed a preferred orientation suggestive of mild current activity. The specimens were interpreted to have been victims of a mass kill, possibly an algal bloom, within the water column.
Consider the time-harmonic acoustic scattering from an extended elastic body surrounded by a finite number of point-like obstacles in a fluid. We assume point source waves are emitted from arrayed transducers and the signals of scattered near-field data are recorded by receivers not far away from the scatterers (compared to the incident wavelength). The forward scattering can be modeled as an interaction problem between acoustic and elastic waves together with a multiple scattering problem between the extend solid and point scatterers. We prove a necessary and sufficient condition that can be used simultaneously to recover the shape of the extended elastic solid and to locate the positions of point scatterers. The essential ingredient in our analysis is the outgoing-to-incoming (OtI) operator applied to the resulting near-field response matrix (or operator). In the first part, we justify the MUSIC algorithm for locating point scatterers from near-field measurements. In the second part, we apply the factorization method, the continuous analogue of MUSIC, to the two-scale scattering problem for determining both extended and point scatterers. Numerical examples in 2D are demonstrated to show the validity and accuracy of our inversion algorithms.
The distribution of all recognized biotic elements was mapped on five extensive surfaces of the Middle Triassic Guanling Formation exposed in quarries near Luoping, Yunnan Province, China. A 0.5 m2 grid was overlain on the surfaces, and all recognizable fossils were located by placing them in one of nine quadrants within the grid. A total of 240 m2 were mapped, and each specimen observed was recorded as one of 15 categories, subsequently grouped as pelagic, benthic, and other (bone, trace fossils, algae). The pelagic component, fish, thylacocephalans, and mysidaceans, dominated all layers. The benthic component was sparse on all surfaces; epifaunal, vagrant organisms were the dominant forms, suggesting that the substrate was unsuitable for infaunal and sessile epifaunal organisms. Shrimp and bivalves dominated the benthic organisms. Two of the surfaces were overwhelmingly dominated by mysidaceans, and one was dominated by thylacocephalans, suggesting that their remains documented periodic mass kills of swarming, pelagic organisms. Scanning electron microscope analysis of the bedding surfaces revealed nothing remarkable about the sediment, suggesting that the cause of death of the organisms was likely due to an event within the water column, possibly an algae bloom, not recorded in the sediment record.