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Before-after prospective surveillance study to assess the efficacy of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional infection control program to reduce the rate of occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of INICC member hospitals from 15 cities in the following 10 developing countries: Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, India, Mexico, Morocco, Peru, Philippines, Tunisia, and Turkey.
VAP rates were determined during a first period of active surveillance without the implementation of the multidimensional approach (phase 1) to be then compared with VAP rates after implementation of the INICC multidimensional infection control program (phase 2), which included the following practices: a bundle of infection control interventions, education, outcome surveillance, process surveillance, feedback on VAP rates, and performance feedback on infection control practices. This study was conducted by infection control professionals who applied National Health Safety Network (NHSN) definitions for healthcare-associated infections and INICC surveillance methodology.
During phase 1, we recorded 3,153 mechanical ventilation (MV)–days, and during phase 2, after the implementation of the bundle of interventions, we recorded 15,981 MV-days. The VAP rate was 17.8 cases per 1,000 MV-days during phase 1 and 12.0 cases per 1,000 MV-days during phase 2 (relative risk, 0.67 [95% confidence interval, 0.50–0.91]; P = .001 ), indicating a 33% reduction in VAP rate.
Our results demonstrate that an implementation of the INICC multidimensional infection control program was associated with a significant reduction in VAP rate in NICUs in developing countries.
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