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What was the return to education in the United States at mid-century? In 1940, the correlation between years of schooling and earnings was relatively low. In this article, we estimate the causal return to schooling in 1940, constructing a large linked sample of twin brothers to account for differences in unobserved ability and family background. We find that each additional year of schooling increased labor earnings by approximately 4 percent, about half the return found for more recent cohorts in twins studies. These returns were evident both within and across occupations and were higher for sons from lower socio-economic status families.
Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) warrants attention as a dominant transmission vector of the pinewood nematode, and it exhibits tolerance to high temperature. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family members, including inducible HSP70 and heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70), are major contributors to the molecular chaperone networks of insects under heat stress. In this regard, we specifically cloned and characterized three MaltHSP70s and three MaltHSC70s. Bioinformatics analysis on the deduced amino acid sequences showed these genes, having close genetic relationships with HSP70s of Coleopteran species, collectively shared conserved signature structures and ATPase domains. Subcellular localization prediction revealed the HSP70s of M. alternatus were located not only in the cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum but also in the nucleus and mitochondria. The transcript levels of MaltHSP70s and MaltHSC70s in each state were significantly upregulated by exposure to 35–50°C for early 3 h, while MaltHSP70s reached a peak after exposure to 45°C for 2–3 h in contrast to less-upregulated MaltHSC70s. In terms of MaltHSP70s, the expression threshold in females was lower than that in males. Also, both fat bodies and Malpighian tubules were the tissues most sensitive to heat stress in M. alternatus larvae. Lastly, the ATPase activity of recombinant MaltHSP70-2 in vitro remained stable at 25–40°C, and this recombinant availably enhanced the thermotolerance of Escherichia coli. Overall, our findings unraveled HSP70s might be the intrinsic mediators of the strong heat tolerance of M. alternatus due to their stabilized structure and bioactivity.
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) by infants and young children are less explored in Asian populations. The Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes cohort study examined associations between SSB intake at 18 months and 5 years of age, with adiposity measures at 6 years of age. We studied Singaporean infants/children with SSB intake assessed by FFQ at 18 months of age (n 555) and 5 years of age (n 767). The median for SSB intakes is 28 (interquartile range 5·5–98) ml at 18 months of age and 111 (interquartile range 57–198) ml at 5 years of age. Association between SSB intake (100 ml/d increments and tertile categories) and adiposity measures (BMI standard deviation scores (sd units), sum of skinfolds (SSF)) and overweight/obesity status were examined using multivariable linear and Poisson regression models, respectively. After adjusting for confounders and additionally for energy intake, SSB intake at age 18 months were not significantly associated with later adiposity measures and overweight/obesity outcomes. In contrast, at age 5 years, SSB intake when modelled as 100 ml/d increments were associated with higher BMI by 0·09 (95 % CI 0·02, 0·16) sd units, higher SSF thickness by 0·68 (95 % CI 0·06, 1·44) mm and increased risk of overweight/obesity by 1·2 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·23) times at age 6 years. Trends were consistent with SSB intake modelled as categorical tertiles. In summary, SSB intake in young childhood is associated with higher risks of adiposity and overweight/obesity. Public health policies working to reduce SSB consumption need to focus on prevention programmes targeted at young children.
This paper presents a comparative study on three types of slim coil structures used as a three-dimensional (3-D) receiver in a wireless power transfer system with a planar transmitter coil. The mutual coupling values and their variations between the receiver structures and the transmitter coil are compared under different distances and angular orientations with respect to the transmitter coil. The merits of performance are related to the consistency of the mutual coupling values under different orientations in a range of distances from the transmitter coil. The practical results show that slim 3-D receiver coil structures can be compatible with a planar transmitter coil with reasonably high-mutual coupling.
To describe an outbreak of bacteremia caused by vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecalis (VSEfe).
An investigation by retrospective case control and molecular typing by whole-genome sequencing (WGS).
A tertiary-care neonatal unit in Melbourne, Australia.
Risk factors for 30 consecutive neonates with VSEfe bacteremia from June 2011 to December 2014 were analyzed using a case control study. Controls were neonates matched for gestational age, birth weight, and year of birth. Isolates were typed using WGS, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was determined.
Bacteremia for case patients occurred at a median time after delivery of 23.5 days (interquartile range, 14.9–35.8). Previous described risk factors for nosocomial bacteremia did not contribute to excess risk for VSEfe. WGS typing results designated 43% ST179 as well as 14 other sequence types, indicating a polyclonal outbreak. A multimodal intervention that included education, insertion checklists, guidelines on maintenance and access of central lines, adjustments to the late onset sepsis antibiotic treatment, and the introduction of diaper bags for disposal of soiled diapers after being handled inside the bed, led to termination of the outbreak.
Typing using WGS identified this outbreak as predominately nonclonal and therefore not due to cross transmission. A multimodal approach was then sought to reduce the incidence of VSEfe bacteremia.
Dietary intake of toddlers has been of growing interest due to its long-term consequences on health. However, previous works have focused largely on Caucasian populations and less is known about Asian toddlers. We aimed to validate a semi-quantitative FFQ designed to assess dietary intakes of 18-month-old toddlers in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort.
An FFQ of ninety-four food items, identified based on food records of 12-month-old GUSTO children, the Southampton Women’s Survey 12 Month Infancy Questionnaire and inputs from paediatric dietitians, was filled out two weeks before the 18th-month clinic visit. As the reference method, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls (24HR) were administered during and two weeks after the clinic visit. FFQ nutrient intakes were validated against averaged 24HR nutrient intakes, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Spearman’s rank-order correlation, cross-classification and the Bland–Altman method.
Data from the Singapore Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother–offspring birth cohort.
Toddlers (n 188) aged 18 months.
Absolute nutrient intakes from the FFQ were significantly higher than from the 24HR, except for vitamin A. After energy adjustments, r range was 0·56–0·78 (macronutrients) and 0·40–0·54 (micronutrients). De-attenuation increased r to 0·58–0·96 and 0·45–0·65 for macro- and micronutrients, respectively. Of participants, ≥82·4 % (macronutrients) and ≥77·7 % (micronutrients) were classified in the same and adjacent quartiles. No clear systematic increase in intake differences with increasing mean intake was observed in Bland–Altman plots.
This FFQ can provide a satisfactory assessment of toddlers’ energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, as well as accurately rank them in a group.
Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors were commissioned. JUNA plans to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies. At the first period, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ)26 Al, 19F(p,α) 16 O, 13C(α, n) 16O and 12C(α,γ) 16O near the Gamow window. The current progress of JUNA will be given.
The 16-item Filial Piety Scale (FPS) has been used in different cultural groups to measure individuals’ loyalty to their family and traditions. Nevertheless, the language could be a barrier for Malay-speaking populations to fully comprehend the items. Thus, the present study translated the FPS into the Malay language (FPS-M) and examined psychometric qualities of the scale in a sample of 621 secondary school students in Malaysia, which was randomly split into an exploration sample and a validation sample. Traditional confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling were applied to the exploration sample to identify the best-fit model. Results indicated that the hypothetical two-correlated-factor model was superior to the single-factor model. The model was then verified using the validation sample. The FPS-M reported good internal consistency and positive correlation with self-reported life satisfaction. However, the measurement invariance test revealed that the factor structure of the FPS-M was not equivalent across gender groups. In contrast, the factor loadings, but not intercepts, were found equivalent across the Chinese and Indian students. Overall, the results support that the FPS-M is a useful tool for measuring filial piety attitude in Malaysian adolescents. More studies are needed to identify cultural differences and modify the items to ensure that the FPS-M is applicable for all ethnicity groups.
Omalizumab and ciclosporin are recommended in international clinical guidelines for treating antihistamine-resistant chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate their comparative efficacy and safety to inform local treatment practices in Singapore.
The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to October 2018 involving omalizumab or ciclosporin as an add-on therapy to H1-antihistamines for CSU. Key outcomes were changes in weekly Urticaria Activity Score (UAS7), adverse events, and health-related quality of life. Pairwise meta-analysis was conducted for each outcome. Owing to differences in trial designs and patient characteristics across the studies, a random effects model was employed. In the absence of head-to-head trials, the Bucher method of adjusted indirect comparison was used to estimate the comparative effectiveness between omalizumab and ciclosporin, with placebo as the common comparator.
Eight omalizumab and two ciclosporin placebo-controlled RCTs comprising 1,740 patients were selected. The magnitude of treatment effect for omalizumab was dose-dependent across all efficacy outcomes: 300 mg was superior to 150 mg. Omalizumab 300 mg, although statistically significantly better than placebo for all efficacy outcomes at week 12, did not achieve clinical significance for all measures. The mean change in UAS7 was statistically better for ciclosporin than for placebo (one RCT) at week 4. The indirect comparison between omalizumab and ciclosporin showed no statistically significant differences for mean change in UAS7. Omalizumab had a more favorable short-term safety profile than ciclosporin, but long-term safety data were lacking.
Both omalizumab and ciclosporin were effective in treating CSU, compared with placebo. However, results of the indirect comparison should be interpreted with caution. On the basis of limited available evidence, and taking into account the similar place in therapy of omalizumab and ciclosporin, the results may be considered acceptable to confirm the clinical comparability of the drugs an add-on to H1-antihistamines for CSU.
South-east Asian apple snails, Pila spp., have been declining since the introduction of globally invasive, confamilial South American Pomacea spp., yet Pila ecology remains poorly studied, with most occurrence records unconfirmed. Pila scutata, a previously widespread species, presumed native to the Malay peninsula and assessed as Least Concern in the IUCN Red List, was formerly harvested for food, and may have experienced anthropogenic translocations. We surveyed the Malay peninsula (specifically Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore) to investigate the current distribution and genetic diversity of P. scutata. Six populations were found in Singapore, but only one in Peninsular Malaysia. Mitochondrial COI and 16S sequencing revealed that the Malaysian population shared a single haplotype of both genes with the Singapore populations (500 km distant). This low genetic diversity could stem from a recent anthropogenic introduction, which brings into question the true native range of P. scutata and, coupled with poorly resolved taxonomy of the genus, necessitates a reassessment of its IUCN Red List status. Introduced populations pose a dilemma, and the lack of genetic diversity is of concern in light of Pila decline throughout South-east Asia. Our results highlight that conservation management of P. scutata and its congeners must therefore be better informed by greater taxonomic resolution and more comprehensive investigations of their ecology, both in native and introduced ranges.
Antibiotic use varies widely between hospitals, but the influence of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) on this variability is not known. We aimed to determine the key structural and strategic aspects of ASPs associated with differences in risk-adjusted antibiotic utilization across facilities.
Observational study of acute-care hospitals in Ontario, Canada
A survey was sent to hospitals asking about both structural (8 elements) and strategic (32 elements) components of their ASP. Antibiotic use from hospital purchasing data was acquired for January 1 to December 31, 2014. Crude and adjusted defined daily doses per 1,000 patient days, accounting for hospital and aggregate patient characteristics, were calculated across facilities. Rate ratios (RR) of defined daily doses per 1,000 patient days were compared for hospitals with and without each antimicrobial stewardship element of interest.
Of 127 eligible hospitals, 73 (57%) participated in the study. There was a 7-fold range in antibiotic use across these facilities (min, 253 defined daily doses per 1,000 patient days; max, 1,872 defined daily doses per 1,000 patient days). The presence of designated funding or resources for the ASP (RRadjusted, 0·87; 95% CI, 0·75–0·99), prospective audit and feedback (RRadjusted, 0·80; 95% CI, 0·67–0·96), and intravenous-to-oral conversion policies (RRadjusted, 0·79; 95% CI, 0·64–0·99) were associated with lower risk-adjusted antibiotic use.
Wide variability in antibiotic use across hospitals may be partially explained by both structural and strategic ASP elements. The presence of funding and resources, prospective audit and feedback, and intravenous-to-oral conversion should be considered priority elements of a robust ASP.
We characterized evacuations related to Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall in New Jersey on October 29, 2012.
We analyzed data from the 2014 New Jersey Behavioral Risk Factor Survey. The proportion of respondents reporting evacuation was used to estimate the number of New Jersey adults who evacuated. We determined evacuation rates in heavily impacted and less-impacted municipalities, as well as evacuation rates for municipalities under and not under mandatory evacuation orders. We tested associations between demographic and health factors, such as certain chronic health conditions, and evacuation.
Among respondents, 12.7% (95% CI: 11.8%-13.6%) reported evacuating, corresponding to approximately 880,000 adults. In heavily impacted municipalities, 17.0% (95% CI: 15.2%-18.7%) evacuated, compared with 10.1% (95% CI: 9.0%-11.2%) in less-impacted municipalities. In municipalities under mandatory evacuation orders, 42.5% (95% CI: 35.1%-49.8%) evacuated, compared with 11.8% (95% CI: 10.9%-12.9%) in municipalities not under mandatory orders. Female gender (odds ratio [OR]: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.14-1.64), unmarried status (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.02-1.46), shorter length of residence (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03-1.60), and living in a heavily impacted municipality (OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.54-2.20) were significantly associated with evacuation. History of stroke (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.02-2.53) was the only chronic condition associated with evacuation.
Approximately 880,000 New Jersey adults evacuated because of Hurricane Sandy. Those in heavily impacted municipalities and municipalities under mandatory evacuation orders had higher evacuation rates; however, still fewer than half evacuated. These findings can be used for future disaster planning. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:720–728).
We study the effects of Dy, Nb, and Ga additions on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposites. Dy, Nb, and Ga additions inhibit the growth of the soft magnetic α-Fe phase. Dy and Nb additions are able to refine the microstructure, whereas Ga addition plays only a minor role in prohibiting crystal growth. The magnetic properties are sensitive to Dy, Nb, and Ga additions. The Dy-containing alloy enhances the intrinsic coercivity of 872 kA/m because Dy partially replaces Nd, forming (Nd, Dy)2Fe14B. Nb addition refines the microstructure, and consequently increases the exchange coupling between magnetic grains. The Nd9.5Fe75.4Co5Zr3B6.5Ga0.6 alloy exhibits the highest remanence (0.92 T) due to Ga addition.
Physicians and nurses do not assess spirituality routinely, even though spiritual care is a vital part of palliative care for patients with an advanced serious illness. The aim of our study was to determine whether a training program for healthcare professionals on spirituality and the taking of a spiritual history would result in improved patient quality of life (QoL) and spiritual well-being.
This was a cluster-controlled trial of a spiritual care training program for palliative care doctors and nurses. Three of seven clinical teams (clusters) received the intervention, while the other four served as controls. Included patients were newly referred to the palliative care service, had an estimated survival of more than one month, and were aware of their diagnosis and prognosis. The primary outcome measure was the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT–Sp) patient-reported questionnaire, which patients completed at two timepoints. Total FACIT–Sp score includes the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–General (FACT–G) questionnaire, which measures overall quality of life, as well as a spiritual well-being score.
Some 144 patients completed the FACIT–Sp at both timepoints—74 in the control group and 70 in the intervention group. The change in overall quality of life, measured by change in FACT–G scores, was 3.89 points (95% confidence interval [CI95%] = –0.42 to 8.19, p = 0.076) higher in the intervention group than in the control group. The difference between the intervention and control groups in terms of change in spiritual well-being was 0.32 (CI95% = –2.23 to 2.88, p = 0.804).
Significance of results:
A brief spiritual care training program can possibly help bring about enhanced improvement of global patient QoL, but the effect on patients' spiritual well-being was not as evident in our participants. Further study with larger sample sizes is needed to allow for more definite conclusions to be drawn.
Patients with early cognitive impairment (ECI) face the prospect of progressive cognitive decline that impairs their ability to make decisions on financial and personal matters. Advance care planning (ACP) is a process that facilitates decision making on future care and often includes identifying a proxy decision maker. This prospective study explores factors related to completion or non-completion of ACP in patients with ECI.
Patients with ECI (n = 158, Mage = 76.2 ± 7.25 years) at a memory clinic received psycho-education and counseling on the importance of ACP and followed-up longitudinally for up to 12 months to ascertain if ACP had been completed. Univariate and logistic regression were used to analyze factors related to completion and non-completion of ACP.
Seventy-seven patients (48.7%) were initially willing to consider ACP after the counseling and psycho-educational session but only 17 (11.0%) eventually completed ACP. On logistic regression, patients who were single were 8.9 times more likely to complete ACP than those who were married (p = 0.007). Among those initially willing to consider ACP, factors impeding completion of ACP included patient (48.0%), process (31.0%), and family factors (21.0%).
As unmarried patients may not have immediate family members to depend on to make decisions, they may perceive ACP to be more important and relevant. Understanding the barriers to ACP completion can facilitate targeted interventions to improve the uptake of ACP.
Epidemiological data show that osteoarthritis (OA) is significantly associated with lower birth weight, and that OA may be a type of fetal-originated adult disease. The present study aimed to investigate the prenatal food-restriction (PFR) effect on the quality of articular cartilage in female offspring to explore the underlying mechanisms of fetal-originated OA. Maternal rats were fed a restricted diet from gestational day (GD) 11 to 20 to induce intra-uterine growth retardation. Female fetuses and female adult offspring fed a post-weaning high-fat diet were killed at GD20 and postnatal week 24, respectively. Serum and knee cartilage samples from fetuses and adult female offspring were collected and examined for cholesterol metabolism and histology. Fetal serum corticosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the PFR group were lower than those of the control, but the serum cholesterol level was not changed. The lower expression of IGF-1 in the PFR group lasted into adulthood. The expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes, including type II collagen, aggrecan and cholesterol efflux genes including liver X receptor, were significantly induced, but the ATP-binding-cassette transporter A1 was unchanged. PFR could induce a reduction in ECM synthesis and impaired cholesterol efflux in female offspring, and eventually led to poor quality of articular cartilage and OA.
Previous studies have demonstrated that betaine supplements increase lean body mass in livestock and improve muscle performance in human beings, but evidence for its effect on human lean mass is limited. Our study assessed the association of circulating betaine with lean mass and its composition in Chinese adults. A community-based study was conducted on 1996 Guangzhou residents (weight/mass: 1381/615) aged 50–75 years between 2008 and 2010. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect general baseline information. Fasting serum betaine was assessed using HPLC-MS. A total of 1590 participants completed the body composition analysis performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during a mean of 3·2 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, regression analyses demonstrated a positive association of serum betaine with percentage of lean mass (LM%) of the entire body, trunk and limbs in men (all P<0·05) and LM% of the trunk in women (P=0·016). Each sd increase in serum betaine was associated with increases in LM% of 0·609 (whole body), 0·811 (trunk), 0·422 (limbs), 0·632 (arms) and 0·346 (legs) in men and 0·350 (trunk) in women. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of lower LM% decreased by 17 % (whole body) and 14 % (trunk) in women and 23 % (whole body), 28 % (trunk), 22 % (arms) and 26 % (percentage skeletal muscle index) in men with each sd increment in serum betaine. Elevated circulating betaine was associated with a higher LM% and lower prevalence of lower LM% in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults, particularly men.
The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values of standard portion sizes of Southeast Asian traditional foods. A total of fifteen popular Southeast Asian foods were evaluated. Of these foods, three were soft drinks, while the other twelve were solid foods commonly consumed in this region. In total, forty-seven healthy participants (eighteen males and twenty-nine females) volunteered to consume either glucose at least twice or one of the fifteen test foods after a 10–12 h overnight fast. Blood glucose concentrations were analysed before consumption of the test food, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption, using capillary blood samples. The GI value of each test food was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) value of the test food as a percentage of each participant's average IAUC value, with glucose as the reference food. Among the fifteen foods tested, six belonged to low-GI foods (Ice Green Tea, Beehoon, Pandan Waffle, Curry Puff, Youtiao and Kaya Butter Toast), three belonged to medium-GI foods (Barley Drink, Char Siew Pau and Nasi Lemak), and the other six belonged to high-GI foods (Ice Lemon Tea, Chinese Carrot Cake, Chinese Yam Cake, Chee Cheong Fun, Lo Mai Gai and Pink Rice Cake). The GI and GL values of these traditional foods provide valuable information to consumers, researchers and dietitians on the optimal food choice for glycaemic control. Moreover, our dataset provides GI values of fifteen foods that were not previously tested extensively, and it presents values of foods commonly consumed in Southeast Asia.
In this paper, we study the (3+1)-dimensional generalized Johnson model, which can be used to describe the dust-ion-acoustic waves in a cosmic unmagnetized dusty plasma, and its perturbed model, which can be found in an unmagnetized dusty plasma for the electron temperature below the Curie temperature. (I) For the original model: Bilinear form and soliton solutions are obtained. Amplitude of the one soliton reaches the maximum when the equilibrium electron (ne0) and ion (ni0) densities take certain values which correspond with ne0/ni0 = 2. Overtaking and head-on interactions between the two solitons are given. (II) For the perturbed model: Phase projections are given numerically. Via the spectral analysis, two kinds of chaotic motions, i.e., the weak and developed chaos, are investigated. Largest Lyapunov exponents and power spectra are investigated to corroborate that those motions are indeed chaotic. Dynamic behavior of such a perturbed model varying with the external perturbation is different when the nonlinear term changes. With the damped term considered, two kinds of periodic motions are studied, and spectra of those periodic motions are also given. Through the comparison between the chaotic motions and periodic ones, possible chaotic or periodic motions in the perturbed model can be predicted.