To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Polscope imaging provides valuable information on the structure and architecture of themeiotic spindle and the zona pellucida (ZP), which helps predict fertilization, embryo development, and pregnancy. Differential interference contrast (DIC) is most efficient when imaging through glass coverslips, an impractical requirement for clinical in vitro fertilization (IVF), so most IVF laboratories employ variations of the DIC method, such as Hoffman modulation (HM). When imaging the oocyte for IVF, it is important to maintain tight temperature control, because both reduced and elevated temperature disrupts the integrity of the meiotic spindle. Spindles can be imaged non-invasively by polarized light microscopy. A quantitative polarized light microscope, the polscope, which uses circularly rather than plane polarized light, provides orientation-independent and, therefore, quantitative measurement of retardance in living specimens. Further studies are needed to determine whether spindle abnormalities predict aneuploidy as revealed by the more invasive preimplantation genetic screening (PGS).