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Single photon sources (SPS) are an important building block for realizing quantum technologies for computing, communication, and sensing. For industrialization, electrically controllable color centers acting as SPS are required. We have demonstrated the creation of electrically controllable silicon vacancies (VSis) in the SiC pn junction diode fabricated by proton beam writing (PBW). PBW was successfully used to introduce electrically controllable VSi without degradation of the diode performance. The dependence of the electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) intensities from VSi on H+ fluence revealed that the emission efficiency of EL is less than that of PL. For EL, the supply of carriers (electrons and/or holes) was restricted due to the resistive region around each VSi introduced by PBW. The results suggest that further improvement in the VSi creation process without defects acting as majority carrier removal centers (highly resistive region) and nonradiative centers by optimization of PBW conditions are key points to realize highly sensitive quantum sensors using VSi.
Nymphonella tapetis (Pycnogonida, Ascorhynchidae) is an endoparasitic sea spider affecting bivalves. Recently, sea spiders have been found on a massive scale in the commercially important Manila clams (Veneridae, Ruditapes philippinarum) in Japan (Tokyo Bay). Simultaneously, mass mortality has occurred in this area. Local fishers assumed that this mass mortality was caused by the parasitic sea spider, despite the effect of the parasite and parasite intensity on the host being unknown. To evaluate the susceptibility of the Manila clam to sea spider infestation and the impact on mortality levels, we established six treatments at different infection intensities (density of newly hatched larvae of sea spiders) over a 6-month long laboratory experiment. We monitored mortality and three susceptibility indices (clearance rate, sand-burrowing speed and adductor muscle strength) under sufficient food conditions. Parasitization by sea spider affected clearance rate and sand-burrowing speed. The pattern of parasitic intensity effects on survival of Manila clam hosts was shown to be dependent on the levels of parasite numbers, i.e. clams with lower parasitic levels (total of <200 hatching larvae of sea spider given to a host) have a higher survival rate, and high mortality of host clams was shown in excessively higher parasitic densities (400–4000 individuals). Such pattern of parasitic effects on host survival might be one of the causes of mass mortality of Manila clams occurring in the field.
Quality of life (QOL) has become an important outcome measure in the care of dementia patients. However, there have been few studies focusing on the difference in QOL between different dementias.
Two-hundred seventy-nine consecutive outpatients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) or frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were recruited. The QOL was evaluated objectively using the QOL Questionnaire for Dementia (QOL-D).The QOL-D comprises six domains: positive affect, negative affect and actions, communication, restlessness, attachment to others, and spontaneity. General cognition, daily activities, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were also evaluated.
The scores of positive affect of QOL-D of AD patients were significantly higher than those of patients with DLB or FTD (AD 3.1 ± 0.8, DLB 2.6 ± 0.9, FTD 2.6 ± 0.7). The scores of negative affect and action of QOL-D of FTD patients were significantly higher than those of patients with AD or DLB (FTD 2.0 ± 0.8, AD 1.4 ± 0.5, DLB 1.5 ± 0.6). The apathy scores of FTD and DLB patients were significantly higher than those of patients with AD. The disinhibition scores of FTD patients were significantly higher than those of patients with AD or DLB.
The apathy of FTD and DLB patients and depression of DLB patients might affect the lower positive affect of FTD and DLB patients compared to AD patients. The disinhibition of FTD patients might affect the abundance of negative affect & actions in FTD patients compared to AD and DLB patients.
Properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are very different from bulk gold, in particular, highly dispersed AuNPs exhibit high catalytic activities on metal oxide supports. Catalytic activities of AuNPs are strongly dependent on: (i) size and morphology; (ii) synthesis methods; (iii) nature of the support; (iv) interaction between AuNPs and the support; and (v) oxidation state of AuNPs in the synthesized catalysts. A goal is to maintain the size and to prohibit aggregation of AuNPs, since aggregations deteriorate catalytic activities. Some strong interactions are therefore required between AuNPs and their supports to prevent the movement of AuNPs. SBA-15 is a promising material for the support of AuNPs since it has ordered two-dimensional hexagonal pore channels, uniform pore size ranging from 5 to 30 nm, narrow pore size distribution, thick amorphous walls ranging from 3 to 6 nm, and high surface area. In this study, SBA-15, TiO2-SBA-15 and TiO2-SBA-15-AuNP nanocomposites were synthesized by the sol-gel method and microstructural characterizations were carried out by both X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy.
The snailfish Liparis tanakae is an annual fish, growing up to >300 mm in total length. This species is known as a predator of 0-year-old Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. To reveal when and where the predation occurs, monthly collections of both species at various depths were conducted off Fukushima, Japan. The snailfish inhabited shallow areas ≤50 m deep until June. Thereafter, they shifted their main habitat to offshore areas ≥100 m deep from July to September. The snailfish migrated to inshore areas with depths of ≤50 m again around October–December, during which time the habitat overlap between snailfish and 0-year-old Japanese flounder was observed. In that period, >40% of 0-year-old Japanese flounder were vulnerable to the snailfish. Larger snailfish showed stronger piscivory, and some flatfish were found in their stomachs. These results suggest that by not releasing hatchery-reared Japanese flounder until September can forestall predation by the snailfish.
A fast proton conducting glass with proton transport number tH = 1 was successfully prepared by using conventional melting method. In-situ FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) measurements under hydrogen atmosphere, temperature of 300°C and applying 1 V between Pt electrodes were carried out in order to monitor the proton concentration. The electrode reaction on Pt in these conditions is similar to that under intermediate-temperature fuel cell operation. It was found from the in-situ FTIR measurements that the absorbance around 2900 cm-1 increases clearly after applying 1 V, whereas no significant change was observed around 3400 cm-1. Proton infiltration into the glass is discussed based on the in-situ FTIR and impedance results.
The electronic transport properties of the organic ferroelectric gate field-effect transistors (FeFETs) with the ZnO channel were investigated. The FeFETs with the channel thickness below 100 nm show nonvolatile operation and the on/off ratio of 105. The field-effect mobility decreased with decreasing the channel thickness. From the Hall-effect measurement, it was found that the Hall mobility increases and the carrier concentration decreases after the deposition of the organic ferroelectric gate. From these results, the effect of the ferroelectric polarization on the electronic transport in the FeFETs was discussed.
YBCO films on LaAlO3and IBAD (YSZ/Hastelloy) substrate were made by TFA-MOD (metalorganic deposition using trifluoroacetate) process. Improved coating solution resulted in high Jc at 77.3K and 0T of 7 MA/cm2 and 1.7 MA/cm2 for LaAlO3 and IBAD substrates, respectively. The magnetic field dependence of Jc at 77.3K also showed superior property: 105 A/cm2 at 4T (B//c-axis) for the LaAlO3substrate and at 3T (B//c-axis)) for IBAD substrate. Furthermore, the difference in Jc between single crystal LaAlO3and IBAD was small up to 3T. The present results imply that TFA-MOD process is promising for the practical YBCO coated conductor process.
Thin Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 films were grown on a 8-inch Ir(111)/SiO2/Si substrate by a liquid-source MOCVD system. These films showed dependency of ferroelectric properties on several deposition parameters. PZT single phase was obtained at a substrate temperature of 620°C. The film showed (111) preferred orientation and the Pt/Pb1.16(Zr0.45, Ti0.55)Ox(115nm)/Ir capacitors had excellent ferroelectric properties. The switching charge (Qsw) value (at 2V), saturation voltage (V90) and leakage current density (at 1.5V) were 47.4uC/cm2, 1.7V and 7.5E-8A/cm2 respectively. The capacitor made by using an IrOx top electrode had excellent fatigue-free property.
In this study, doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM with the composition La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ, LSGMC with the composition La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.15Co0.05O3-δ) films for an electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. In the vacuum chamber, LSGM or LSGMC targets were set on the rotating target holder. A KrF excimer laser was introduced into the chamber at an incident angle of about 45 degree. The doped LaGaO3 film was deposited onto NiO substrates without heating in argon ambient gas. The NiO substrate can be used directly as an electrode in the fabrication of the SOFC. The deposited LSGM films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As-deposited films were amorphous. After post annealing at 1273K for 6-10 hours, crystalline LaGaO3 was obtained. Films with thickness greater than several 10 μm showed an uniform and dense morphology. No gas leakage was found using thick films, which is an important characteristic for an electrolyte in fuel cells. The composition of the deposited films was slightly different to that of the target.
Epitaxaially-grown KNbO3 thick films over 8 μm in thickness were successfully grown at 220 °C for 6 h on (100)cSrRuO3//SrTiO3 substrates by a hydrothermal method. Epitaxial SrRuO3 layers grown on (100)cSrTiO3 substrates by sputter method were used as bottom electrode layers. Relative dielectric constant and the dielectric loss were 530 and 0.11, respectively. Clear hysteresis loops originated to the ferreoelectricity were observed and a remanent polarization was 25 μC/cm2 at a maximum applied electric field of 540 kV/cm. In addition, the hydrothermal KNbO3 thick film was able to transmitting and receiving of ultrasonic waves over 50MHz.
Epitaxial BiFeO3 (BFO) thick films were fabricated on SrTiO3 (STO) substrates by a simple liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) growth technique. To avoid the evaporation of Bi, in this process, we used the lid substrate. As starting materials, we used calcined powder or amorphous films deposited by pulsed laser ablation. The fabricated films were found to have a single perovskite phase and be (100)-oriented. Cube-on-cube epitaxial growth of film on the STO substrate was also confirmed by ϕ-scan measurements. The films grown on the substrate display a multigrain structure with a maximum in-plane size of approximately 100μm, and the film thickness was about 3-35 μm. The interface structure between the film and the substrate was relatively smooth. These results indicate that the proposed simple LPE technique is highly suitable for the fabrication of BFO thick films.
We investigated whether the fat and protein fractions of freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea) extract (FCE) could ameliorate hypercholesterolaemia in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. We also explored the mechanism and the components that exert the hypocholesterolaemic effect of FCE. The doses of the fat and protein fractions were equivalent to those in 30 % FCE. The fat and protein fractions of FCE, two major components of FCE, significantly reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. The fat fraction more strongly reduced serum cholesterol levels than the same level of total FCE. The excretion of faecal neutral sterols increased in rats fed the total the FCE and the fat fraction of FCE. On the other hand, faecal bile acid levels were greater in rats fed the total FCE and the fat and protein fractions of FCE than in control animals. The hepatic gene expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter G5 and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase was up-regulated by the administration of the total FCE and both the fat and protein fractions of FCE. These results showed that the fat and protein fractions of FCE had hypocholesterolaemic properties, and that these effects were greater with the fat fraction than with the protein fraction. The present study indicates that FCE exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effects through at least two different mechanisms, including enhanced excretion of neutral sterols and up-regulated biosynthesis of bile acids.
Compressive properties at 573–773 K of porous aluminum produced by the spacer method were investigated and compared with those of bulk reference aluminum with the same chemical compositions. The stress exponent and activation energy for deformation at elevated temperatures in the porous aluminum were in agreement with those in the bulk reference aluminum. In addition, the plateau stress of the porous aluminum was comparable to the stress of the bulk reference aluminum upon compensation by the relative density. Therefore, it is conclusively demonstrated that the mechanism of deformation at elevated temperatures in the porous aluminum is the same as that in the bulk reference aluminum. This is likely due to the homogeneous microstructure in the porous aluminum produced by the spacer method.
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