Due to its high agro-ecological variation and favorable production environment, Ethiopia has been endowed with high diversity of animal genetic resources and huge livestock population. However, the per capita consumption of livestock products is among the least in the world. To increase this consumption level, Ethiopia needs to keep livestock species that would be able to thrive under sub-optimal management systems, while providing some amount of products and services. The domestic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is one of the large ruminants that contribute to the least developed world's food and agriculture production. Therefore, introduction of the riverine-type buffalo would support food and agriculture production in Ethiopia. Moreover, the existing high demand for milk and meat, and the agro-ecological conditions are in favor of introduction of the riverine-type buffalo. More specifically, the riverine buffalo excels over indigenous cattle in its milk yield and quality of milk components. It also has a long productive life, a special ability of converting poor-quality roughage into animal protein, docile temperament and a wide range of adaptation. The presence of wild buffalo also shows Ethiopia's suitability for domestic buffalo rearing. Therefore, even though it seems illogical to make direct comparison between the performance of the Ethiopian indigenous cattle and the domestic buffaloes kept elsewhere; the hardy nature of buffalo and its wide range of adaptation would indicate the adaptation of the riverine-type buffalo in Ethiopia. However, the introduced riverine-type buffalo needs to be handled on experimental stations until management expertise is developed.