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The Real Time Mesoscale Analysis (RTMA), a two-dimensional variational analysis algorithm, is used to provide hourly analyses of surface sensible weather elements for situational awareness at spatial resolutions of 3 km over Alaska. In this work we focus on the analysis of horizontal visibility in Alaska, which is a region prone to weather related aviation accidents that are in part due to a relatively sparse observation network. In this study we evaluate the impact of assimilating estimates of horizontal visibility derived from a novel network of web cameras in Alaska with the RTMA. Results suggest that the web camera-derived estimates of visibility can capture low visibility conditions and have the potential to improve the RTMA visibility analysis under conditions of low instrument flight rules and instrument flight rules.
This study presents functional limit theorems for the Euler characteristic of Vietoris–Rips complexes. The points are drawn from a nonhomogeneous Poisson process on
, and the connectivity radius governing the formation of simplices is taken as a function of the time parameter t, which allows us to treat the Euler characteristic as a stochastic process. The setting in which this takes place is that of the critical regime, in which the simplicial complexes are highly connected and have nontrivial topology. We establish two ‘functional-level’ limit theorems, a strong law of large numbers and a central limit theorem, for the appropriately normalized Euler characteristic process.
This chapter provides an overview of Abenomics’ effects on financial markets and the real economy, with a focus on the effect of monetary policy. While many financial and real economic indicators showed success, consumption growth was sluggish. Household-level data from the Family Income and Expenditure Survey suggest that this is in part because monetary policy did not have the predicted expansionary effect on household consumption, even for those households expected to benefit most.
Dietary intake modification is important for the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, little is known about the association between dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins and kidney function based on gender difference. We examined the relationship of dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins with decreased kidney function according to gender in Japanese subjects. This population-based, cross-sectional study included 936 Japanese participants with the age of 40 years or older. A validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire was used to measure dietary intakes of vitamin E and its four isoforms, vitamin A and vitamin C. Decreased kidney function was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1·73 m2. A total of 498 (53·2 %) of the study participants were women. Mean age was 62·4 ± 11·3 years. Overall, 157 subjects met the criteria of decreased kidney function. In the fully adjusted model, a high vitamin E intake is inversely associated with decreased kidney function in women (odds ratio, 0·886; 95 % confidence interval, 0·786–0·998), whereas vitamin E intake was not associated with decreased kidney function (odds ratio, 0·931; 95 % confidence interval, 0·811–1·069) in men. No significant association between dietary intake of vitamins A and C and decreased kidney function was observed in women and men. Higher dietary intake of vitamin E was inversely associated with decreased kidney function in middle-aged and older women, and the result may provide insight into the more tailored dietary approaches to prevent CKD.
Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents during general anaesthesia can be fatal. A 1956 report identified pulmonary aspiration as the commonest cause of death during general anaesthesia and NAP4 reported similarly in 2011. Major efforts have been made to reduce its incidence. Cricoid pressure (force) was introduced in the 1960s but remains controversial. Recent studies and new techniques have shed further light on the debate. The role of second generation supraglottic airway devices and videolaryngoscopy is also discussed.
The aim of this study was to clarify residents’ intentions to return (ITR) to Tomioka town, Fukushima Prefecture; and their risk perception of the health effects of radiation exposure as stratified by gender and generation.
Of almost 8000 residents who were 20 years of age or older and who had lived, prior to the accident, in the zones of Tomioka town where residents were permitted to return, 1860 were included in the analysis. For the analysis, the residents were divided into 4 groups which were stratified by gender and age: older males (over 50 years), young males (20−49 years), older females (over 50 years), and young females (20−49 years).
ITR was found to be significantly lower in young males, young females, and older females than in older males. Conversely, young and older females had significantly higher levels of anxiety about drinking tap water and consuming food collected in Tomioka town. Young and older females also had greater concerns about adverse health effects on themselves and their offspring due to living in Tomioka town.
Our results showed that special attention should be paid to younger residents, particularly to young females, with regard to recovery from a nuclear disaster.
This chapter’s purpose is to summarize and analyze current states of the rights of persons with disabilities and the nexus of these rights with mental health and psychosocial well-being, particularly focusing on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It describes the key rights in CRPD and analyzes the interrelationship between CRPD and SDGs. The chapter also presents the history of global efforts to protect and promote the rights of persons with disabilities as well as recent and current developments. Persons with disabilities, including persons with mental health conditions and psychosocial disabilities, have faced numerous barriers and violations of human rights for a long time. The adoption of CRPD, coupled with SDGs and other key global agreements, provides great momentum for realizing their rights. The chapter concludes that respecting diversity, eliminating social barriers (including attitudinal ones), being attentive to the silent majority and minorities and reaching out to unheard voices, enabling supportive environment where individuals support each other based on needs instead of their attributes, and establishing and incorporating indicators pertaining to mental health and well-being into the monitoring efforts of sustainable development, peace and security, and overall human rights together with mental health perspectives are critical.
Agricultural intensification within forage systems has reduced grassland floral diversity by promoting ryegrass (Lolium spp.), damaging soil functionality which underpins critical ecosystem services. Diverse forage mixtures may enhance environmental benefits of pastures by decreasing nutrient leaching, increasing soil carbon storage, and with legume inclusion, reduce nitrogen fertilizer input. This UK study reports on how species-rich forage mixtures affect soil carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen at dry, medium and wet soil moisture sites, compared to ryegrass monoculture. Increasing forage mixture diversity (from 1 to 17 species) affected soil carbon at the dry site. No effect of forage mixture on soil phosphorus was found, while forage mixture and site did interact to affect soil nitrate/nitrite availability. Results suggest that forage mixtures could be used to improve soil function, but longer-term studies are needed to conclusively demonstrate environmental and production benefits of high-diversity forages.
Protein undernutrition contributes to the development of various diseases in broad generations. Urinary metabolites may serve as non-invasive biomarkers of protein undernutrition; however, this requires further investigation. We aimed to identify novel urinary metabolites as biomarker candidates responsive to protein undernutrition. Adult rats were fed control (CT; 14 % casein) or isoenergetic low-protein (LP; 5 % casein) diets for 4 weeks. 1H NMR metabolomics was applied to urine, plasma and liver samples to identify metabolites responsive to protein undernutrition. Liver samples were subjected to mRNA microarray and quantitative PCR analyses to elucidate the mechanisms causing fluctuations in identified metabolites. Urinary taurine levels were significantly lower in the LP group than in the CT group at week 1 and remained constant until week 4. Hepatic taurine level and gene expression level of cysteine dioxygenase type 1 were also significantly lower in the LP group than in the CT group. Urinary trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels were significantly higher in the LP group than in the CT group at week 2 and remained constant until week 4. Hepatic TMAO level and gene expression levels of flavin-containing mono-oxygenase 1 and 5 were also significantly higher in the LP group than in the CT group. In conclusion, urinary taurine and TMAO levels substantially responded to protein undernutrition. Furthermore, changes in hepatic levels of these metabolites and gene expressions associated with their metabolic pathways were also reflected in their fluctuating urinary levels. Thus, taurine and TMAO could act as non-invasive urinary biomarker candidates to detect protein undernutrition.
Implantable neural interfaces are important tools to accelerate neuroscience research and translate clinical neurotechnologies. The promise of a bidirectional communication link between the nervous system of humans and computers is compelling, yet important materials challenges must be first addressed to improve the reliability of implantable neural interfaces. This perspective highlights recent progress and challenges related to arguably two of the most common failure modes for implantable neural interfaces: (1) compromised barrier layers and packaging leading to failure of electronic components; (2) encapsulation and rejection of the implant due to injurious tissue–biomaterials interactions, which erode the quality and bandwidth of signals across the biology–technology interface. Innovative materials and device design concepts could address these failure modes to improve device performance and broaden the translational prospects of neural interfaces. A brief overview of contemporary neural interfaces is presented and followed by recent progress in chemistry, materials, and fabrication techniques to improve in vivo reliability, including novel barrier materials and harmonizing the various incongruences of the tissue–device interface. Challenges and opportunities related to the clinical translation of neural interfaces are also discussed.
A deconvolutional method for preprocessing powder diffraction data has been improved. The cumulants of instrumental aberration functions of Bragg-Brentano (Parrish) diffractometer calculated up to the fourth order are presented. The treatments of axial-divergence aberration and the effective spectroscopic profile of the source X-ray have been simplified from those used in previous methods. The current method has been applied to powder diffraction data collected with a Cu-target X-ray tube, used over 20 years, and a Ni-foil Kβ filter.
Although the effects of snow during sea-ice growth have been investigated for sea ice which is thick enough to accommodate dry snow, those for thin sea ice have not been paid much attention due to the difficulty in observing them. Observations are complicated by the presence of slush and its subsequent freeze-up, and the surface heat budget might be sensitive to the additional ice thickness. An onsite short-term land fast sea-ice freeze-up experiment in the Saroma-ko Lagoon, Hokkaido, Japan was carried out to examine the effects of snowfall on the structure and surface heat budget of thin sea ice, based on observational results and a 1-D thermodynamic model. We found that snowfall contributes to the solidification of the surface slush layer, contributing ice thickness that is comparable to the snowfall amount and affecting the crystal texture significantly. On the other hand, the basal ice growth rate and turbulent heat flux were not significantly affected, being <3.1 × 10−8 m s−1 and 3 W m−2, respectively. This finding may validate the omission in past studies of snow effect in estimating ice production rates in polynyas and has implications about the reconstruction of growth history from sample analysis.
Sample geometry effects on mechanical strengths of gold micro-cantilevers are evaluated by a micro-bending test. Six micro-cantilevers with the same length of 50 μm are prepared, and the width and the thickness are varied to examine individual effects on the yield stress. The yield stress increases from 428 to 519 MPa when the thickness decreases from 11.1 to 6.0 μm. No obvious dependency is observed when varying the width. The results reveal that the thickness and the width each has a different influence on the yield stresses of micro-cantilevers evaluated by the bending test, which is the sample geometry effect.
To determine whether carbapenem consumption and Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance rates can be used as benchmarks to compare and improve antimicrobial stewardship programs across multiple pediatric hospitals.
A prospective study.
Setting and participants:
Healthcare institutions in Japan with >100 pediatric beds.
An annual survey of the total days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 patient days for carbapenem antibiotics (meropenem, imipenem-cilastatin, panipenem-betamipron, doripenem) and susceptibility rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to meropenem and imipenem-cilastatin from each institution was conducted over a 7-year period. Data were reported to the administration, as well as to the infection control team, of each institution annually.
Data were obtained from 32 facilities. The median total carbapenem DOT per 1,000 patient days was 16.6 and varied widely, with a range of 2.7 to 59.0. The median susceptibility to meropenem was 86.6%, ranging from 78.6% to 96.6%. We detected an inverse correlation between total carbapenem DOT versus susceptibility (r = – 0.36; P < .01). Over the 7-year period, the DOT per 1,000 patient days of carbapenem decreased by 27% from a median of 16.0 to 11.7 (P < .01). We also observed an improvement in susceptibility to meropenem from a median of 87% to 89.7% (P = .01) and to imipenem-cilastatin from 79% to 85% (P < .01). The decreases in the use of carbapenem were greater in institutions with antimicrobial stewardship programs led by pediatric infectious disease specialists.
Antimicrobial use and resistance, targeting carbapenems and P. aeruginosa, respectively, can serve as benchmarks that can be utilized to promote antimicrobial stewardship across pediatric healthcare institutions.