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The aim of this study was to shed light on damage to water supply facilities and the state of water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011), in order to identify issues concerning the operational continuity of hospitals in the event of a disaster.
In addition to interview and written questionnaire surveys to 14 disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture, a number of key elements relating to the damage done to water supply facilities and the operation of water resources were identified from the chronological record of events following the Great East Japan Earthquake.
Nine of the 14 hospitals experienced cuts to their water supplies, with a median value of three days (range = one to 20 days) for service recovery time. The hospitals that could utilize well water during the time that water supply was interrupted were able to obtain water in quantities similar to their normal volumes. Hospitals that could not use well water during the period of interruption, and hospitals whose water supply facilities were damaged, experienced significant disruption to dialysis, sterilization equipment, meal services, sanitation, and outpatient care services, though the extent of disruption varied considerably among hospitals. None of the hospitals had determined the amount of water used for different purposes during normal service or formulated a plan for allocation of limited water in the event of a disaster.
The present survey showed that it is possible to minimize the disruption and reduction of hospital functions in the event of a disaster by proper maintenance of water supply facilities and by ensuring alternative water resources, such as well water. It is also clear that it is desirable to conclude water supply agreements and formulate strategic water allocation plans in preparation for the eventuality of a long-term interruption to water services.
MatsumuraT, OsakiS, KudoD, FurukawaH, NakagawaA, AbeY, YamanouchiS, EgawaS, TominagaT, KushimotoS. Water Supply Facility Damage and Water Resource Operation at Disaster Base Hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture in the Wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(2):1-5.
This study aimed to clarify the management of emergency electric power and the operation of radiology diagnostic devices after the Great East Japan Earthquake.
Timing of electricity restoration, actual emergency electric power generation, and whether radiology diagnostic devices were operational and the reason if not were investigated through a questionnaire submitted to all 14 disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture in February and March 2013.
Commercial electricity supply resumed within 3 days after the earthquake at 13 of 14 hospitals. Actual emergency electric power generation was lower than pre-disaster estimates at most of the hospitals. Only 4 of 11 hospitals were able to generate 60% of the power normally consumed. Under emergency electric power, conventional X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scanners worked in 9 of 14 (64%) and 8 of 14 (57%) hospitals, respectively. The main reason conventional X-ray and CT scanners did not operate was that hospitals had not planned to use these devices under emergency electric power. Only 2 of the 14 hospitals had a pre-disaster plan to allocate emergency electric power, and all devices operated at these 2 hospitals.
Pre-disaster plans to allocate emergency electric power are required for disaster base hospitals to effectively operate radiology diagnostic devices after a disaster. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;8:548-552)
A survey was conducted to describe the characteristics of patients treated for hypothermia after the Great East Japan Earthquake.
Written questionnaires were distributed to 72 emergency medical hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture. Data were requested regarding inpatients with a temperature less than 36ºC admitted within 72 hours after the earthquake. The availability of functional heating systems and the time required to restore heating after the earthquake were also documented.
A total of 91 inpatients from 13 hospitals were identified. Tsunami victims comprised 73% of the patients with hypothermia. Within 24 hours of the earthquake, 66 patients were admitted. Most patients with a temperature of 32ºC or higher were treated with passive external rewarming with blankets. Discharge without sequelae was reported for 83.3% of patients admitted within 24 hours of the earthquake and 44.0% of those admitted from 24 to 72 hours after the earthquake. Heating systems were restored within 3 days of the earthquake at 43% of the hospitals.
Hypothermia in patients hospitalized within 72 hours of the earthquake was primarily due to cold-water exposure during the tsunami. Many patients were successfully treated in spite of the post-earthquake disruption of regional social infrastructure.(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-11)
To clarify advance measures for business continuity taken by disaster base hospitals involved in the Great East Japan Earthquake.
The predisaster situation regarding stockpiles was abstracted from a 2010 survey. Timing of electricity and water restoration and sufficiency of supplies to continue operations were investigated through materials from Miyagi Prefecture disaster medicine headquarters (prefectural medical headquarters) and disaster base hospitals (14 hospitals) in Miyagi Prefecture after the East Japan earthquake.
The number of hospitals with less than 1 day of stockpiles in reserve before the disaster was 7 (50%) for electricity supplies, 8 (57.1%) for water, 6 (42.9%) for medical goods, and 6 (42.9%) for food. After the disaster, restoration of electricity and water did not occur until the second day or later at 8 of 13 (61.5%) hospitals, respectively. By the fourth postdisaster day, 14 hospitals had requested supplies from the prefectural medical headquarters: 9 (64.3%) for electricity supplies, 2 (14.3%) for water trucks, 9 (64.3%) for medical goods, and 6 (42.9%) for food.
The lack of supplies needed to continue operations in disaster base hospitals following the disaster clearly indicated that current business continuity plans require revision. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;0:1-6)
Feasibility of SiNx passivation films at low substrate temperatures prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) is studied for ferroelectric nonvolatile random access memories (FRAMs). SiNx films were prepared at low substrate temperatures of 100 °C, 175 °C and 200 °C using Cat-CVD. Adjusting on flow rate ratio of SiH4/NH3, the refractive index of SiNx film, deposited at 175 °C and 200 °C, measured by ellipsometry is controlled around 2.0. SiNx films, with the refractive index around 2.0, deposited at only 200 °C show the following properties. 1) No oxidation during air exposure for 3 months was observed for the films. 2) Etching rate of the films in buffered HF is 20 nm/min. The dense SiNx film, which is resistive for oxidation in air exposure and dissolution in buffered HF, is prepared at 200 °C and the film is suitable to the passivation of ferroelectric capacitors.
A new type of hydro—fluorinated amorphous silicon—carbide (a-SiC:F:H) is produced by the glow discharge decomposition of gas mixture of CF4, H2 and intermediate species SiF2. The electrical, optical and structural properties of this a—SiC:F:H are studied and the results are compared with the similar results for a—SiC:F:H produced from gas mixture of CH4, H2 and SiF2 and also for hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a—SiC:H) produced from CH4 and SiH4 gas mixture. It is found that the optical band gap can be increased without degradation of photo—conductive properties only when amorphous silicon carbide is produced from CF4, H2 and SiF2 gas mixture.
We investigated the effects of exposure to active ammonia (NH3) gas generated by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) apparatus on ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) capacitors. It is very important to know these effects in order to apply Cat-CVD SiNx films to passivation films for ferroelectric FRAMs. The exposure to active NH3 was carried out for PZT film capacitors with two types of bottom electrodes on Si wafer at various substrate temperatures. The capacitor with Pt/IrO2 bottom electrode peeled off from substrate during exposure over 200°C. On the other hand, the ferroelectricity of the capacitors with IrO2 bottom electrodes gradually degraded from 200°C to 300°C. As a result, it is found that no degradation of the ferroelectricity is detected for exposure below 200°C. It is concluded that the Cat-CVD method is a promising candidate for preparation of the SiNx passivation film on ferroelectrics, since it is a low stressed film with low hydrogen content.
HCl was added to SiH4 containing plasmas to grow a-Si:H(Cl) films with dangling bonds terminated with Cl instead of H. Bulk and surface infrared spectra, film thickness and optical band gap were examined by in situ multiple total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. SiH2Cl2 was also used as a conventional Cl source for reference a-Si:H(Cl) film deposition experiments. The introduction of HCl does not affect the deposition rate significantly, and the deposited a-Si:H(Cl) films contain over 1021cm-3 Cl atoms. HCl addition to the gas phase changes the surface compositions of the growing films drastically from higher silicon hydride to chlorinated lower hydride. The surface reaction control eliminates unfavorable hydride bonding structures such as SiH2 and/or SiH in voids in the deposited films. The a-Si:H(Cl) films deposited from mixtures of SiH4 and HCl do not show significant optical band gap widening in spite of containing over 1021cm-3 Cl atoms, a concentration that is comparable to that of hydrogen. In contrast, a conventional chlorine source of SiH2Cl2 increases the deposition rate significantly compared to HCl. The increase in the deposition rate results in monotonic decrease of the refractive index and the optical band gap widening.
Dangling bond defects (DB) in hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) have been studied by X-band (9 GHz) Q-band (33 GHz) and W-band (90 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. In X-band ESR spectra, all the samples showed asymmetric dangling bond defect signal at g = 2.005 – 2.006. The DB signal shape shows little dependence on substrate temperature in the X-band electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra. In the Q-band and W-band ESR spectra, existence of two centers in DB signals is clearly indicated by the shape of the spectra. The Q-band ESR spectra shape reviles that the peak of one center is at g = 2.0055andthe other is around at g = 2.0060. In addition, the DB signal showed dependence on substrate temperature. The dependence of the DB signals can be explained by difference of intensity ratio of the peaks by these two centers. The signal at g = 2.0060 is consistent with the asymmetric ESR signal observed in the microcrystalline silicon embedded in SiO2. W-band ESR measurement indicates that the signal observed at g = 2.0060 is due to single inhomogeneous species and does not consist of plural species.
We proposed a new carbon source, 1,3-disilabutane (H3Si-CH2-SiH2-CH3:1,3-DSB), to grow hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) films by mercury-sensitized photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD). We described preliminary results of undoped and p-type a-SiC films deposited using 1,3-DSB. It was found that the optical energy gap of the films was changed even at very small 1,3-DSB/silane ratios of few percents. P-type doping was carried out by using diborane and we obtained the films with a darkconductivity of 1.3x10-4 S/cm at the optical bandgap of 2.1 eV. In addition, we applied this material for a p-layer of a p-i-n type a-Si based solar cell and we have achieved relatively high conversion efficiency of 9.55%.
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