Crystallization of silicate has been investigated within the framework of dust formation in steady state gas outflows around oxygen–rich AGB stars, where silicates are locked not only into homogeneous silicate grains but also into the mantles of heterogeneous grains. Based on the thermal history of dust grains after their formation, the crystallization calculation results in no crystalline silicate for the mass loss rate Ṁ ≤ 2 × 10−5
⊙ yr−1. Only silicate in the mantles of heterogeneous grains can be crystallized for Ṁ ≥ 3 × 10−5
⊙ yr−1, while homogeneous silicate grains remain amorphous. The mass fraction of crystalline silicate increases with increasing Ṁ. The radiation transfer calculations confirm the appearance of an emission feature around 33.5 μm, taking olivine as a representative of crystalline silicates. On the other hand, the 10μm feature appears in absorption, being dominated by homogeneous silicate grains. These trends are consistent with the observations. Thus the crystalline silicate is a diagnostics of high mass loss rate at the late stage of AGB stellar evolution, reflecting the formation process of dust grains.