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To determine whether carbapenem consumption and Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance rates can be used as benchmarks to compare and improve antimicrobial stewardship programs across multiple pediatric hospitals.
A prospective study.
Setting and participants:
Healthcare institutions in Japan with >100 pediatric beds.
An annual survey of the total days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 patient days for carbapenem antibiotics (meropenem, imipenem-cilastatin, panipenem-betamipron, doripenem) and susceptibility rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to meropenem and imipenem-cilastatin from each institution was conducted over a 7-year period. Data were reported to the administration, as well as to the infection control team, of each institution annually.
Data were obtained from 32 facilities. The median total carbapenem DOT per 1,000 patient days was 16.6 and varied widely, with a range of 2.7 to 59.0. The median susceptibility to meropenem was 86.6%, ranging from 78.6% to 96.6%. We detected an inverse correlation between total carbapenem DOT versus susceptibility (r = – 0.36; P < .01). Over the 7-year period, the DOT per 1,000 patient days of carbapenem decreased by 27% from a median of 16.0 to 11.7 (P < .01). We also observed an improvement in susceptibility to meropenem from a median of 87% to 89.7% (P = .01) and to imipenem-cilastatin from 79% to 85% (P < .01). The decreases in the use of carbapenem were greater in institutions with antimicrobial stewardship programs led by pediatric infectious disease specialists.
Antimicrobial use and resistance, targeting carbapenems and P. aeruginosa, respectively, can serve as benchmarks that can be utilized to promote antimicrobial stewardship across pediatric healthcare institutions.
CO2 laser irradiation onto growing a-Si:H surface caused a decrease of the optical bandgap down to 1.63 eV and a significant increase of the photosensivity. Primary effect of the laser irradiation was a conventional substrate heating, while the optical bandgap narrowing could not be explained by heating effect alone.
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