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Whether or not breast-feeding is protective against asthma among children is still controversial. Therefore, we examined the effects of breast-feeding on hospitalization for asthma in early childhood.
Secondary data analyses of a nationwide longitudinal survey of children in Japan ongoing since 2001, with results collected from 2001 to 2004. We used logistic regression models to evaluate the associations of breast-feeding with hospitalization for asthma in children between the ages of 6 and 42 months, adjusting for children’s factors (sex, day-care attendance and presence of older siblings) and maternal factors (educational attainment and smoking habit).
All over Japan.
Term singleton children with information on feeding practices during infancy (n 43367).
After adjusting for maternal factors and children’s factors, exclusive breast-feeding at 6–7 months of age was associated with decreased risk of hospitalization for asthma in children. The adjusted odds ratio was 0·77 (95 % CI 0·56, 1·06). One-month longer duration of breast-feeding was associated with a 4 % decreased risk of hospitalization for asthma (OR=0·96; 95 % CI 0·92, 0·99).
The protective effects of breast-feeding on hospitalization for asthma were observed in children between the ages of 6 and 42 months.
A confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method with a vacuum chamber was used for investigation of underfilm corrosion that occurs on a painted steel sheet used for automotive applications. A painted steel sheet was prepared by applying electrodeposition coating onto an electro-galvanized steel sheet with a zinc phosphate conversion coating. The spatial resolution of the confocal micro-XRF was about 10.9 ?m at an energy of 17.4 keV. The phosphorus signal from the zinc phosphate layer was able to be observed nondestructively by measuring under the vacuum condition. Each layer of the painted steel sheet was observed from the depth profile analysis of the characteristic elements of each layer. The painted steel sheet was scratched to expose the substrate surface, and then the sheet was then immersed in a NaCl solution for 10 days. The in-depth elemental map of Ti of the corroded steel sheet revealed blister-type corrosion around the scratch. The in-depth elemental maps of Zn and P suggested that the zinc phosphate layer dissolved from the scratched part into the NaCl solution.
Diffraction microscopy (or diffractive imaging) with iterative phase retrieval was performed using a low-energy (20-keV) electron beam to verify the possibility of high-resolution imaging with low specimen damage. Diffraction patterns of fine and uniform multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were recorded without a post-specimen lens. One- and two-dimensional phase retrievals were processed from the diffraction pattern alone. The reconstructed object images reflected the characteristic structure of the MWCNT. These results show the possibility of high-resolution imaging with a low-energy electron beam.
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