We examined the effects of feeding guar-gum hydrolysate (GGH), a highly fermentable form of dietary fibre with low viscosity, on Ca absorption in the small and large intestines in rats under conditions in which gastric acid secretion was suppressed by a proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole. We also examined the role of the caecum in influencing these effects. The study was designed in a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement with two diet (GGH-containing (50 g/kg diet) and GGH-free diets) groups, two injection (omeprazole and vehicle) groups and two operation (sham and caecectomy) groups. Apparent Ca absorption was lower in rats administered omeprazole (30 mg/kg body weight per d) for 8 d than in rats administered the vehicle. Ingestion of GGH led to partial restoration of Ca absorption decreased by omeprazole treatment. However, this increment in Ca absorption was not sufficient to meet requirements because the dietary Ca level (3·0 g/kg diet) was the minimum requirement for the intact rats. The small increment in Ca absorption caused by the GGH diet was completely abolished by caecectomy. Soluble Ca pools in the caecal and colonic contents were increased by feeding GGH, and the soluble Ca concentrations were much higher than the Kt values of the Ca active transport system in the large intestine or the serum Ca concentration. These findings suggest that Ca solubilization is not a limiting factor for Ca absorption in the large intestine. Apparent Mg absorption was clearly lower in caecectomized rats than in sham-operated rats, and higher in the GGH-fed groups than in the groups fed on the GGH-free diet, even in the case of caecectomized rats. We conclude that Ca absorption lowered by inhibition of gastric acid secretion is partially restored in rats fed with GGH, but the increment is not sufficient to meet requirements.