Sulphur-isotopic composition of soft tissues from Bathymodiolusmarisindicus collected from hydrothermal vents in the Indian Ocean was reported. The δ34S values of the soft tissues (+3∼+5‰ vs Cañyon Diablo troilite) were nearly identical to those from the associated hydrothermal fluid and chimney sulphides (+5 to +8‰), but were significantly different from that of the common seawater sulphate (+21‰), which suggested that the endosymbiotic bacteria used sulphide in the fluid as an energy source. Transmission electron microscopic observation of the endosymbionts also suggested that the symbiont is a thioautotroph. Bathymodiolus species, which depend on either sulphide or methane oxidation, or both, have a worldwide distribution. Bathymodiolus marisindicus from the Indian Ocean has a close relationship with congeners in the Pacific Ocean as evidenced by form of symbiosis. Biogeography and migration of the genus Bathymodiolus based on the relevant data are briefly discussed.