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Metastable defects are discovered in hydrogen-implanted n-type silicon. Hydrogen implantation was performed with the energy of 80 keV to a dose of 2×10 cm- at 109 K. After implantation, the sample temperature was raised to room temperature. DLTS measurements were carried out in the temperature range 80–290 K for fabricated diodes. When the sample is reverse-biased at 10V for 10 min at room temperature and then is cooled down to 80 K, three new peaks labeled EM1, EM2 and EM3 appear around 150, 190 and 240 K, respectively. The introduction of metastable defects is found to be characteristic of low temperature implantation. We have evaluated properties of EM1 in detail. EM1 with thermal emission activation energy of 0.29 eV has a peak in concentration around the depth of 0.64 μ m, which corresponds to the projected range of 80 keV hydrogen. EM1 is regenerated with the reverse bias applied around 270 K and is removed with the zero bias around 220 K.
Variations of thermal donors (TDs) in highly phosphorus-diffused n-type silicon wafers (diffused wafer) have been studied with deep-level transient spectroscopy and capacitance-voltage measurements. The introduction and annihilation of TDs have been performed with heat treatment at 450°C and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) in the temperature range 600-900°C,respectively. In diffused floating zone-grown (FZ) silicon wafer, TDs were observed. It is thought that oxygen diffuses into FZ silicon during the diffusion process, since no TDs are generally formed in FZ silicon for the low oxygen concentration. The behavior of TDs in diffused wafer corresponded with that in oxygen-rich bulk silicon. TDs were completely annihilated by RTA at 700 and 800°C for the as-diffused wafers and the heat-treated ones at 450°C for 24 h, respectively, and the annihilation rate for the as-diffused wafers was fast, as compare to that for the heat-treated ones. This results may be caused by difference in the total concentration and cluster size of TDs.
Introduction of oxygen during thermal oxidation and production of defects by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) in n-type epitaxial Si layers were studied with deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements. We use oxygen-related thermal donors (TDs) as a monitor for introduction of oxygen in silicon epitaxial layers. It is found that oxygen is introduced from the substrate into the epitaxial layer after thermal annealing. The TD was almost annihilated by RTA at .700°C. However, a shallow trap (Ec−0.073±0.005 eV) was induced by RTA.
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