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Adult onset tic disorders are usually secondary in origin. We report a case of adult onset tic disorder following carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication with typical magnetic resonance imaging features.
A 36-year-old woman developed temporarily suppressible patterned movements on her face, neck, and shoulder associated with sensory discomfort after CO poisoning. Magnetic resonance images showed bilateral symmetric cavitary changes in the globus pallidus. Clonazepam relieved much of her symptoms.
Our patient developed a mono-symptomatic tic disorder following CO intoxication. This further supports that altered outflow signals from the basal ganglia, especially the globus pallidus, may contribute to the development of tic disorders.
Objective: The radiological and clinical significance of a dilated Virchow-Robin space (dVRS) in the striatum (STR) remains unclear. We investigated the role of dVRS in STR on parkinsonism and dopamine transporter positron emission tomography (DaT-PET) findings. Methods: Patients with parkinsonism who underwent both brain magnetic resonance imaging and DaT-PET were included. Clinical status was evaluated by Hoehn and Yahr (HY) stage, Korean-Mini Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment Korea (MoCA-K), and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). dVRS was assessed by semi-quantitative and quantitative scales in each of the three segments of STR (caudate nuclei, anterior and posterior putamen) and was expressed as a dVRS score. DaT-PET was qualitatively assessed as either normal or abnormal in each segment. The relationship between dVRS and DaT-PET abnormality (ab-DaT-PET) was designated in each segment as either concordant or discordant. A concordant segment was defined by the presence of dVRS with ab-DaT-PET [Concordance rate (CR)=number of concordant segments/number of concordant and discordant segments]. Results: Eleven patients were included. There was no significant correlation between the presence of dVRS and ab-DaT-PET. The mean CR was 0.39. CR was not significantly correlated with any clinical or neuroimaging scales. The dVRS score was significantly correlated with K-MMSE, MoCA-K, and FAB (r=−0.675, −0.847, and −0.868, respectively) but not with HY stage. Conclusion: dVRS in STR played no significant role on dopaminergic innervation revealed by DaT-PET and made little contribution to clinical parkinsonism; however, it was correlated with cognitive impairment.
A number of causative mutations such as a-synuclein, parkin, UCHL1, Pink-1, DJ-1 have been identified in Parkinson's disease (PD). They are usually found in the familial cases. One mutation of great interest is the G2019S mutation in the LRRK2 gene, which has been reported in both familial and sporadic PD. Its prevalence has been reported to vary markedly among different races. We examined the prevalence of the G2019S mutation in the Korean PD population for genetic study planning.
We conducted a genetic analysis of the G2019S mutation by standard PCR and restriction digestion method. 453 PD patients were studied, 34% of whom had an age at onset of <50 years and 3.8% had a positive family history.
None of the 453 study subjects carried the G2019S mutation.
Our result confirms previous reports that the G2019S mutation is rare among PD patients in the Asian population. This result supports the notion that the prevalence of this LRRK2 mutation is population specific, and that there may be a founder effect within western populations.
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