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Community studies about the association of headache with both childhood family adversities and depression/anxiety disorders are limited.
To assess the independent and joint associations of childhood family adversities and early-onset depression and anxiety disorders with risks of adult-onset headache.
Data were pooled from cross-sectional community surveys conducted in ten Latin and North American, European and Asian countries (n=18 303) by using standardised instruments. Headache and a range of childhood family adversities were assessed by self-report.
The number of childhood family adversities was associated with adult-onset headache after adjusting for gender, age, country and early-onset depression/anxiety disorder status (for one adversity, hazard ratio (HR)=1.22–1.6; for two adversities, HR=1.19–1.67; for three or more adversities, HR=1.37–1.95). Early and current onset of depression/anxiety disorders were independently associated (HR=1.42–1.89) with adult-onset headache after controlling for number of childhood family adversities.
The findings call for a broad developmental perspective concerning risk factors for development of headache.
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