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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To study the biology of Phosholamban (PLN) in a human relevant model. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: State of the art stem-cell technologies using iPSC-CMs derived from carriers of a lethal PLN mutation. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our preliminary data demonstrate that this particular PLN mutation (L39) results in reduced expression and mis-localization of PLN as well as increased incidence of early after depolarization in isolated iPSC-CMs. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Phospholamban (PLN) is a critical regulator of Ca++ homeostasis yet many uncertainties still remain regarding its role in humans. Our study will provide unique insights into the pathophysiology of this protein in HF.
In this paper, three-dimensional (3D) image data of ore particle systems is investigated. By combining X-ray microtomography with scanning electron microscope (SEM)-based image analysis, additional information about the mineralogical composition from certain planar sections can be gained. For the analysis of tomographic images of particle systems the extraction of single particles is essential. This is performed with a marker-based watershed algorithm and a post-processing step utilizing a neural network to reduce oversegmentation. The results are validated by comparing the 3D particle-wise segmentation empirically with 2D SEM images, which have been obtained with a different imaging process and segmentation algorithm. Finally, a stereological application is shown, in which planar SEM images are embedded into the tomographic 3D image. This allows the estimation of local X-ray attenuation coefficients, which are material-specific quantities, in the entire tomographic image.
This study investigates the ternary intermetallic phases in the Mg–Zn–Ca system, which is of great interest for metallic biodegradable implant applications. According to published phase diagrams, the key alloy composition studied herein is located within the Ca2Mg5Zn5, Ca2Mg6Zn3, and IM1 phase fields. Through controlled cooling of the melt, a quasibinary ∼Ca2Mg5Zn5–Mg microstructure was obtained. The large polygonal grains had a composition of Ca2Mg5Zn5 as determined by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Differential scanning calorimetry revealed that Ca2Mg5Zn5 begins to form at ∼417 °C, and the eutectic temperature is ∼369 °C. Based on single-crystal x-ray diffraction data, Ca2Mg5Zn5 was determined to be hexagonal (P63/mmc), with lattice parameters of a = 9.5949(3) Å and c = 10.0344(3) Å. This was also verified by transmission electron microscopy. Further refinements, which considered the possibility of mixed Mg/Zn sites, significantly improved the data fit compared to the initial ordered structural model. The final refined structure possesses a composition of Ca16Mg42Zn42, very similar to the chemical analysis results from EDX.
Si is a promising anode material for Li storage due to its high theoretical specific capacity surpassing 4200 Ah/kg. Si based anodes exhibit an extreme instability upon electrochemical incorporation of Li given the accompanied large volume expansion of about 400%. We show innovative anode assemblies composed of a forest of free standing Si nanowires conformally integrated on carbon meshes. The morphology of silicon nanowires allows a volume expansion and compression lowering strain incorporation. In this paper, we demonstrate the utilization of SiNW grown on top of a current collector made of a carbon fiber network. This leads to an increase of stability of Si with a remaining effective capacitance above 2000 Ah/kg(Si) after 225 full charge/discharge cycles. This is significantly better compared to previous results shown in literature. The anodes are fabricated by a simple and inexpensive method promising for a transfer into industrial integration.
Previously published guidelines are available that provide comprehensive recommendations for detecting and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist acute care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing their Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) prevention efforts. This document updates “Strategies to Prevent Clostridium difficile Infections in Acute Care Hospitals,” published in 2008. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise. The list of endorsing and supporting organizations is presented in the introduction to the 2014 updates.
Reconfigurable nanowire transistors provide the operation of unipolar p-type and n-type FETs freely selectable within a single device. The enhanced functionality is enabled by controlling the currents through two individually gated Schottky junctions. Here we analyze the impact of the Schottky barrier height on the symmetry of Silicon nanowire RFET transfer characteristics and their performance within circuits. Prospective simulations are carried out, indicating that germanium nanowire based RFETs of the same dimensions will show a distinctly increased performance, making them a promising material solution for future reconfigurable electronics.
Pesticide sorption by soil is among the most sensitive input parameters in many pesticide-leaching models. For many pesticides, organic matter is the most important soil constituent influencing pesticide sorption. Increased fertility, irrigation, and mowing associated with highly maintained turfgrass areas result in constant deposition of organic material, creating a soil system that can change drastically with time. Changes in soil characteristics could affect the environmental fate of pesticides applied to turfgrass systems of varying ages. Sorption characteristics of simazine and S-metolachlor were determined on five soils from bermudagrass systems of increasing ages (1, 4, 10, 21, and 99 yr) and compared to adjacent native pine and bare-ground areas. Surface soil (0 to 5 cm) and subsurface soil (5 to 15 cm) from all sites were air-dried and passed through a 4-mm sieve for separation from plant material. Using a batch-equilibrium method, sorption isotherms were determined for each soil. Data were fit to the Freundlich equation, and Kd (soil sorption coefficient) and Koc (organic carbon sorption coefficient) values were determined. Sorption and soil system age were directly related to organic matter content in the soil. Sorption of both herbicides increased with age of the soil system and was greatest on the surface soil from the oldest bermudagrass soil system. Herbicide sorption decreased at greater soil depths with lower organic matter. Greater amount of 14C–simazine sorbed to subsurface soil of the oldest turfgrass system compared to 14C–S-metolachlor. Results indicate that as bermudagrass systems age and accumulate higher organic matter levels increased herbicide sorption may decrease the leaching potential and bioavailability of simazine and S-metolachlor.
In this paper, we provide the investigation about the controlled surface functionalization of acrylic toner particles for electro photography (“laser printing”) with sodium hydroxide and the subsequent carbodiimide-mediated coupling of numerous functional amines onto the generated carboxylic group. Various chemically valuable functionalities, comprising of thiol, alkyne and azide, were bound onto the particles’ surface and allow for further versatile modifications via huisgen cycloaddition as well as thiol-ene reaction. The functionalization of the acrylic toner surface with alkyne, azide and carboxylic groups increased the cell viability up to 178 % ± 22 % and might offer an interesting path for new applications using common laser printing techniques.
Background: Self-regulatory executive function theory (Wells and Matthews, 1994; Wells, 2008) stresses the role of metacognitions in the development of emotional disorders. Within this metacognitive model, positive beliefs about ruminative thinking are thought to be a risk factor for engaging in rumination and subsequently for depression. However, most of the existing research relies on retrospective self-report trait measures. Aims: The aim of the present study was to examine the theory's predictions with an Ecological Momentary Assessment approach capturing rumination as it occurs in daily life. Method: Non-clinical participants (N = 93) were equipped with electronic diaries and completed four signal-contingent momentary self-reports per day for 4 weeks. A multilevel mediation model was computed to examine associations between positive beliefs about rumination and ruminative thinking and negative affect in daily life. Results: Positive beliefs about rumination were significantly associated with ruminative thinking as it occurs in daily life. We further found evidence for a negative association with positive affect that was completely mediated via ruminative thinking in daily life occurring in response to negative emotions. Conclusions: Our results add ecologically valid corroborating evidence for the metacognitive model of emotional disorders within the framework of self-regulatory executive function theory.