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We examined the relationship between postoperative dietary intake (DI) of geriatric hip fracture (HF) patients and their functional and clinical course until 6 months after hospital discharge. In eighty-eight HF patients ≥ 75 years, postoperative DI was estimated with plate diagrams of main meals over four postoperative days. DI was stratified as >50, >25–50, ≤ 25 % of meals served. Functional status according to Barthel index (activities of daily living) and patients' mobility level before fracture, postoperatively, at discharge and 6 months later were assessed and related to DI levels. In-hospital complications were recorded according to clinical diagnosis. Associations were evaluated using χ2 and Kruskal–Wallis tests, and repeated-measures ANOVA and ANCOVA. Postoperatively, 28 % of participants ate >50 %, 43 % ate >25–50 % and 28 % ≤ 25 % of meals served. Irrespective of pre-fracture functional status, patients with DI ≤ 25 % had significantly lower Barthel index scores at all times after surgery (all P< 0·05) and ANOVA revealed a significant time × DI interaction effect (P= 0·047) on development of Barthel index scores that remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders. Patients with DI >50 % more often had regained their pre-fracture mobility level than those with DI ≤ 25 % at discharge (>50 %: 36 %; >25–50 %: 10 %; ≤ 25 %: 0 %; P= 0·001) and 6 months after discharge (88; 87; 68 %; P= 0·087) and had significantly less complications (median 2 (25th–75th percentile 1–3); 3 (25th–75th percentile 2–4); 3 (25th–75th percentile 3–4); P= 0·012). To conclude, geriatric HF patients had very low postoperative voluntary DI and thus need specific nutritional interventions to achieve adequate DI to support functional and clinical recovery.
Different types of bondwire interconnect for differential chip-to-antenna and single-ended chip-to-chip interfaces are investigated. Two differential compensation structures for various lengths of interconnects are designed and experimentally evaluated using dedicated transmit and receive radar modules operating across a 110–156 GHz band. Measurement results demonstrate that a fractional bandwidth of 7.5% and a minimum insertion loss of 0.2 dB can be achieved for differential interconnects as long as 0.8 mm. Design and measurement results of an extremely wideband low-loss single-ended chip-to-chip bondwire interconnect that features 1.5 dB bandwidth from DC to 170 GHz and insertion loss of less than 1 dB at 140 GHz are presented as well. The results show that the well-established wire-bonding techniques are still an attractive solution even beyond 100 GHz. Reproducibility and scalability of the proposed solutions are assessed as well.
Chitin occurs in a variety of invertebrates, especially in arthropod cuticles, but is rarely reported in the fossil record. Although it has been detected in fossils as old as Middle Cambrian and Silurian, the majority of records come from much younger, Cenozoic deposits. In this paper, we report the preservation of chitin in Early Jurassic neritimorph gastropod egg capsules deposited in bivalve shells from prodelta-deltafront and nearshore paleoenvironments of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. We used a number of analytical methods to confirm the presence of chitin preserved in these ancient fossils. This is the first record of chitin preservation in Mesozoic deposits that, interestingly, do not follow the conventional Konservat-Lagerstätten manner of preserving soft-bodied and non-biomineralized organisms. We believe that deltaic settings characterized by episodic, high input of fluvial deposits, oligohaline conditions, and oxygen-poor microenvironment within the sediment—as well as early cementation of sediment infilling the shells—were crucial for chitin preservation. The preservation of chitin in such recalcitrant structures as egg capsules and deposits that formed outside conventional Konservat-Lagerstätten conditions renders it likely similar deposits may yield promise for discoveries of similar biological macromolecules.
The desire to make data accessible through the sense of listening has led to ongoing research in the fields of sonification and auditory display since the early 1990s. Coming from the disciplines of computer sciences and human computer interface (HCI), the conceptualisation of sonification has been mostly driven by application areas and methods. On the other hand, the sonic arts, which have always participated in the auditory display community, have a genuine focus on sound. Despite these close interdisciplinary relationships between communities of sound practitioners, a rich and sound- or listening-centred concept of sonification is still missing for design guidelines. Complementary to the useful organisation by fields of application, a proper conceptual framework for sound needs to be abstracted from applications and also to some degree from tasks, as both are not directly related to sound. As an initial approach to recasting the thinking about sonification, we propose a conceptualisation of sonifications along two poles in which sound serves either a normative or a descriptive purpose. According to these two poles, design guidelines can be developed proper to display purposes and listening modes.
Vitamin D and folate are associated with decreased colorectal cancer risk and their association with colorectal cancer prognosis is under investigation. We assessed the levels of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), folate and vitamin B12 in an international pilot study in order to determine variability of these biomarkers based on geographical location. Plasma 25(OH)D3, folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were measured in 149 invasive, newly diagnosed colorectal cancer cases from Heidelberg (Germany), Seattle (WA, USA), and Tampa (FL, USA) and in ninety-one age- and sex-matched controls. Their associations with potential predictors were assessed using multivariate linear regression analyses. Plasma 25(OH)D3, folate and vitamin B12 concentrations differed by location. Other predictors were season for 25(OH)D3 and tumour stage (vitamin B12). Season-corrected average 25(OH)D3 concentrations were higher in Heidelberg (31·7 ng/ml; range 11·0–83·0 ng/ml) than in Seattle (23·3 ng/ml; range 4·0–80·0 ng/ml) and Tampa (21·1 ng/ml; range 4·6–51·6 ng/ml). In Heidelberg, a strong seasonal variation was observed. Folate (11·1 ng/ml) and vitamin B12 (395 pg/ml) concentrations in Heidelberg were lower than those in Seattle (25·3 ng/ml and 740 pg/ml, respectively) and Tampa (23·8 ng/ml and 522 pg/ml, respectively). Differences in plasma 25(OH)D3 and folate concentrations between Heidelberg and the US sites were observed, probably reflecting variation in outdoor activities and sun-avoidance behaviour during summer as well as in folic acid fortification and supplement use. Intra-site differences at each study location were greater than between-location variability, suggesting that individual health behaviours play a significant role. Nevertheless, the intra-site differences we observed may be due to chance because of the limited sample size. Our pilot study illustrates the value of an international cohort in studying colorectal cancer prognosis to discern geographical differences in a broad range of exposures.
In this paper we present a wireless data link for multi-gigabit transmission in the mmW frequency range. The link is realized using waveguide modules based on fully integrated 50 nm metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (mHEMT) transmit and receive millimeter wave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) and provides transmission of data rates up to 12.5 Gbit/s modulated on a 220 GHz carrier. The receiver input sensitivity is characterized down to values of −38.6 dBm and shows an error rate of 3.0 × 10−9. Measurements using a coherent link setup show bit error rates better than 1.6 × 10−9 for a data rate of 10 Gbit/s and a transmission distance of 2 m. For a distance of 20 m a real-time Digital Video Broadcasting – Satellite (DVB-S) television transmission is realized. The signal quality after the wireless link is sufficient for a commercial DVB-S receiver to display the television programs.
This article reports on the role of annealing on the development of microstructure and its concomitant effects on the thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline AgPbmSbTe2+m (m = 18, lead–antimony–silver–tellurium, LAST-18) compounds. The annealing temperature was varied by applying a gradient annealing method, where a 40-mm-long sample rod was heat treated in an axial temperature gradient spanning between 200 and 600 °C for 7 days. Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed Ag2Te nanoparticles at a size of 20–250 nm in the matrix. A remarkable reduction in the thermal conductivity to as low as 0.8 W/mK was also recorded. The low thermal conductivity coupled with a large Seebeck coefficient of ∼320 μV/K led to high ZT of about 1.05 at 425 °C for the sample annealed at 505 °C. These results also demonstrate that samples annealed above 450 °C for long term are more thermally stable than those treated at lower temperatures.
A novel patterning technique for high-resolution full-color OLED-displays will be discussed. Currently applied production systems for OLED-displays incorporate a shadow masking system for patterning of single red, green and blue pixels. Due to its limited scalability, alternative techniques, which can be applied to larger substrate sizes, have to be developed. One approach can be the laser induced local transfer of organic materials.
An infrared absorbing substrate (target) is coated with either a red, green or blue light-emitting organic material and placed in a short distance (below 50 νm) of the OLED-substrate onto which the organic material is to be patterned. The laser beam is deflected by a scanner onto the target in single lines. If the scanning speed and the laser power are adjusted properly, the target locally heats up to a temperature at which the organic material sublimes and condenses on the opposing OLED-substrate. By repeating this process for each colour red, green and blue stripes can be deposited. Line widths below 70 νm have been achieved.
Palaeoecologists using pollen to map vegetation since the last ice age have noted numerous changes – which they feel increasingly obliged to blame on humans. These changes, such as deforestation or the dominance of certain plants, may happen suddenly or take place over thousands of years. The authors study the pollen record in Colombia, identify plants diagnostic of cultivation or disturbed ground (“degraded vegetation”) and use them to map human activities by proxy. They show how the people move and the landscape changes between 5000 BP and the present day, from the coast inland, and from the lowlands up into the Andes.
The field of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) has matured considerably within recent years and first products are commercially available. After a brief review of the improvement of individual OLEDs we will focus on research topics for the preparation of passive matrix (PMOLED), active matrix (AMOLED) and full color displays. To date, the properties of organic matrix displays basically meet consumer product requirements. Anyhow an industrial cheap fabrication technology for reliable displays is not established yet. To meet the industrial demands for device fabrication a new horizontal in-line vacuum system for a massproduction compatible device manufacturing was installed. For material saving large area coatings the system accommodates up to 7” × 13” substrates. Different PMOLED-Displays based on vacuum deposited organic compounds have been prepared by various fabrication techniques. We demonstrate a 2 inch organic display with 24 × 32 single pixels and 0.9 × 0.9 mm2 pitch whereby cathode texture was achieved using photoresist barriers featuring a distinct undercut. Due to the inherent limitations of multiplexing and in order to satisfy the need for large area, high resolution displays the basic concepts for an active matrix addressing scheme are dealt with. In this regard transparent and electrically inverted top-side emitting diodes (IOLEDs) will be demonstrated. The latter are advantageous for the incorporation of powerful nchannel thin film transistors in the AMOLED driver backplanes. An all-organic smart pixel device comprising a single Pentacene based organic field effect transistor (OFET) and a conventional OLED was successfully prepared. Furthermore a new flash-sublimation technique for the spatially selective deposition of small organic molecules will be presented. We prepared OLEDs comprising flash-deposited Tris-(-8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) and Alq3 doped with DCM2 which demonstrate the suitability of this technique for preparation of fullcolor displays based on small organic molecules.
A path finding method and a stochastic time integration scheme for the simulation of thermally activated magnetization processes are introduced. The minimum energy path and the saddle points for the thermally induced transitions between the ground states of NiFe magnetic nano-elements are calculated.
Retroviruses encapsidate their genome as a dimer
of homologous RNA molecules noncovalently linked close
to their 5′ ends. The dimerization initiation site
(DIS) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA
is a hairpin structure that contains in the loop a 6-nt
self-complementary sequence flanked by two 5′ and
one 3′ purines. The self-complementary sequence,
as well as the flanking purines, are crucial for dimerization
of HIV-1 RNA, which is mediated by formation of a “kissing-loop”
complex between the DIS of each monomer. Here, we used
chemical modification interference, lead-induced cleavage,
and three-dimensional modeling to compare dimerization
of subtype A and B HIV-1 RNAs. The DIS loop sequences of
these RNAs are AGGUGCACA and AAGCGCGCA, respectively. In
both RNAs, ethylation of most but not all phosphate groups
in the loop and methylation of the N7 position of the G
residues in the self-complementary sequence inhibited dimerization.
These results demonstrate that small perturbations of the
loop structure are detrimental to dimerization. Conversely,
methylation of the N1 position of the first and last As
in the loop were neutral or enhanced dimerization, a result
consistent with these residues forming a noncanonical sheared
base pair. Phosphorothioate interference, lead-induced
cleavage, and Brownian-dynamics simulation revealed an
unexpected difference in the dimerization mechanism of
these RNAs. Unlike subtype B, subtype A requires binding
of a divalent cation in the loop to promote RNA dimerization.
This difference should be taken into consideration in the
design of antidimerization molecules aimed at inhibiting
Charles G. Matthews will be missed for his enormous
contributions to clinical neuropsychology, but even more
for his wisdom, integrity, wit, humility, compassion, and
eloquence. It was these personal characteristics which
made Chuck an extraordinary, yet quiet leader. His influential
role in the inception and continuing development of our
major organizations earned him a position among our profession's
“Founding Fathers.” He was president of Division
40 (1989), INS (1991), and ABCN (1991–1993), but
his influence spanned decades. He quietly served behind
the scenes as an advisor to presidents of these organizations
who recognized his perspicacity and ability to see all
sides of a given issue.
For farming in the future, positional information is of particular importance. Out of a multitude of positioning systems, GPS/DGPS is the most suitable one. This system does not require any additional infrastructure and at the same time guarantees complete coverage of all tilled surfaces. The major application of positioning with GPS/DGPS is to be seen in the area of local information and documentation. By generating both planning and process data, it facilitates the operation and control of work processes (organic and mineral fertilization, plant protection). In the end, positioning leads to navigation, which, in the case of single vehicles and vehicle pools, will in turn provide completely new possibilities for development and application. For the first time, vehicles without drivers are conceivable. Thus, the completion of any kind of work on schedule, without time limitations, would become possible with the least possible stress for soil and environment.
Recent observations indicate that antibodies to gangliosides are found in many patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). If antigen-antibody complexes occur in ALS, elevations of cytokine levels might be expected, among them the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). IL-6 is secreted by activated monocytes and other cell types and is an important mediator of the inflammatory response. We have measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IL-6 levels in patients with ALS and compared them with those in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders not believed to be due to immune disorders of the central nervous system. We found no significant differences in CSF IL-6 levels between these groups.
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