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Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) are widely expressed in the brain. Evidence suggests that they may play a role in reward responses and neuroprotection. However, the association of GLP-1R with anhedonia and depression diagnosis has not been studied. Here, we examined the association of GLP-1R polymorphisms with objective and subjective measures of anhedonia, as well as depression diagnosis.
Objective [response bias assessed by the probabilistic reward task (PRT)] and subjective [Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS)] measures of anhedonia, clinical variables and DNA samples were collected from 100 controls and 164 patients at McLean Hospital. An independent sample genotyped as part of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) was used to study the effect of putative GLP-1R polymorphisms linked to response bias in PRT on depression diagnosis.
The C allele in rs1042044 was significantly associated with increased PRT response bias, when controlling for age, sex, case-control status and PRT discriminability. AA genotype of rs1042044 showed higher anhedonia phenotype based on SHAPS scores. However, analysis of PGC major depressive disorder data showed no association between rs1042044 and depression diagnosis.
Findings suggest a possible association of rs1042044 with anhedonia but no association with depression diagnosis.
Despite the increasing urgency of many environmental problems, environmental politics remains at the margins of the discipline. Using data from the Teaching, Research, and International Policy (TRIP) project, this article identifies a puzzle: the majority of international relations (IR) scholars find climate change among the top three most important policy issues today, yet fewer than 4% identify the environment as their primary area of research. Moreover, environmental research is rarely published in top IR journals, although there has been a recent surge in work focused on climate change. The authors argue that greater attention to environmental issues—including those beyond climate change—in IR can bring significant benefits to the discipline, and they discuss three lines of research to correct this imbalance.
This article describes a formal proof of the Kepler conjecture on dense sphere packings in a combination of the HOL Light and Isabelle proof assistants. This paper constitutes the official published account of the now completed Flyspeck project.