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The Bering Glacier–Bagley Icefield system in Alaska is currently surging (2011). Large-scale elevation changes and small-scale elevation-change characteristics are investigated to understand surge progression, especially mass transport from the pre-surge reservoir area to the receiving area and propagation of the kinematic surge wave as manifested in heavy crevassing characteristic of rapid, brittle deformation. This analysis is based on airborne laser altimeter data collected over Bering Glacier in September 2011. Results include the following: (1) Maximal crevasse depth is 60 m, reached in a rift that separates two deformation domains, indicative of two different flow regimes. Otherwise surge crevasse depth reaches 20–30 m. (2) Characteristic parameters of structural provinces are derived by application of geostatistical classification. Parameters include significance and spacing of crevasses, surface roughness and crevasse-edge curvature (indicative of crevasse age). A classification based on these parameters serves to objectively discriminate structural provinces, indicative of surge progression down-glacier and up-glacier. (3) Elevation changes from 2011 and 2010 altimetry show 40–70 m surface lowering in the reservoir area in lower central Bering Glacier and 20–40m thickening near the front in Tashalich arm. Combining elevation changes with results of crevasse profilometry and pattern analysis, the rapid progression of the surge can be mathematically–physically reconstructed.
This article describes a formal proof of the Kepler conjecture on dense sphere packings in a combination of the HOL Light and Isabelle proof assistants. This paper constitutes the official published account of the now completed Flyspeck project.
Despite the increasing urgency of many environmental problems, environmental politics remains at the margins of the discipline. Using data from the Teaching, Research, and International Policy (TRIP) project, this article identifies a puzzle: the majority of international relations (IR) scholars find climate change among the top three most important policy issues today, yet fewer than 4% identify the environment as their primary area of research. Moreover, environmental research is rarely published in top IR journals, although there has been a recent surge in work focused on climate change. The authors argue that greater attention to environmental issues—including those beyond climate change—in IR can bring significant benefits to the discipline, and they discuss three lines of research to correct this imbalance.