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This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Description: Semiconductor physics contains a rich body of theory and working designs. However, their material properties seem to be reaching their limits. Perovskite oxides on the other hand have abundant physical properties, but are still under active investigation. The advent of RHEED-monitoring of pulsed laser deposition allows for the fabrication of structures with single unit cell (4 Å) thick layers. In this way we may be able to fabricate quantum well structures for both applications and fundamental investigations. Superlattices of the Mott insulator LaTiO3 (LTO) and the band gap insulator SrTiO3 (STO) form such a structure. The superlattices are metallic, both as-grown and post-annealed . This has been attributed to the existence of metallic states at the interfaces between LTO and STO . At these interfaces the electron density is found to extend about 10 Å into the STO. However, theoretically, the required length scale for quantum confinement is of the order of 4 Å. A possible way to increase this confinement is to use a buffer material with a larger band gap than that of LTO (similar to semiconductor band gap engineering) and/or with a lower dielectric constant . LaAlO3 (LAO) is such a material (ΔELAO = 5.6 eV vs. ΔESTO = 3.2 eV, εLAO = 24 vs. εSTO = 300). Here we report on the growth of LTO/LAO superlattices on STO substrates. As-grown superlattices of LTO/LAO are metallic, while post-annealing turns them insulating. This may be explained from a disorder-order transition in a 2D Mott-Hubbard model . XPS and EELS measurements of the titanium valence show interesting differences for LTO layers close to and far away from the sample surface. The former, for thin LAO capping layers, show the presence of Ti4+ while the latter only have Ti3+. Hard XPS of samples with varying capping layer thickness shows an exponential dependence of the Ti3+ contents on a length scale of about 5 unit cells.  A. Ohtomo et al., Nature 419, 378-380 (2002).  S. Okamoto & A.J. Millis, Phys. Rev. B 70, 075101 (2004).  D. Heidarian & N. Trivedi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 126401 (2004).
Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis is finding increasing application in field assay of soils and stream sediments for geochemical prospecting; in borehole logging and core analysis for formation evaluation in mine control, and in on stream analysis for process control.
The analytical capability of the method is determined by the choice of source, the energy of the exciting radiation and the energy resolution of the detector. The nature of the samples, their atomic number and concentration are also important. However, the most dominant constraints on limits of detection are often imposed by the environment at the region of measurement: by the borehole condition, the nature of the rock face or the form of the particulates and stability of the fluid in a process stream.
A system for the calculation of first-order influence coefficients for any element in any matrix is described in detail. Influence coefficients for either K or L spectra can be evaluated by the method described.
We describe an adaptation of photon excited x-ray fluorescence analysis which is optimized for the analysis of small samples. A fine focus x-ray tube is used in conjunction with small diameter detector collimators in order to focus on a small sample volume with as high sensitivity as possible. Sample areas of less than 1 mm diameter can be analyzed with ppm detectability. In applications involving the analysis of human hair samples, a minimum detectable limit of 10 ppm Hg can be realized in a 1 mm long segment of a single hair in a counting time of 200 seconds. Simultaneous measurements of the sample mass can be obtained from the intensity of the incoherent scattering. An automated x-ray fluorescence analysis system using the technique for the scanning of elemental profiles in such hair samples will be described.
Many analytical problems cannot be solved using a single XRD measurement. One example is the epitaxial growth of thin films of High Tc superconductors. To fully characterise such a sample it is necessary to study both the orientation (texture) and the phase composition of the layer.
X-ray scattering techniques at grazing incidence have been used to characterize single quantum well hetero–structures. Double–and triple-axis diffractometry has been used to determine lattice mismatch and layer thickness of a 250Å thick layer of AlInAs grown by MBE on an InP substrate and capped by a 45Å GaAs layer. Reflectivity measurements in the triple – crystal mode permit accurate measurement of individual layer thicknesses, relative electron density and interface roughnesses on the Angstrom level.
Plasticity in as-grown gold nanowires deformed in three-point bending configuration was studied by Laue microdiffraction. One-dimensional orientation maps of the Au crystal along the nanowire were generated from which the deformation profile was inferred. The crystal lattice was found to rotate continuously around the Au
direction, which is transverse to the wire axis evidencing the storage of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs). The analysis of the diffraction peak shape points to the activation of multiple slip systems in contrast to the formation of wedge shaped twins predicted by MD simulations.
Invasive rodents detrimentally affect native bird species on many islands worldwide, and rodent eradication is a useful tool to safeguard endemic and threatened species. However, especially on tropical islands, rodent eradications can fail for various reasons, and it is unclear whether the temporary reduction of a rodent population during an unsuccessful eradication operation has beneficial effects on native birds. Here we examine the response of four endemic land bird species on subtropical Henderson Island in the Pitcairn Island Group, South Pacific Ocean, following an unsuccessful rodent eradication in 2011. We conducted point counts at 25 sampling locations in 14 survey periods between 2011 and 2015, and modelled the abundance trends of all species using binomial mixture models accounting for observer and environmental variation in detection probability. Henderson Reed Warbler Acrocephalus taiti more than doubled in abundance (2015 population estimate: 7,194-28,776), and Henderson Fruit Dove Ptilinopus insularis increased slightly between 2011 and 2015 (2015 population estimate: 4,476–10,072), while we detected no change in abundance of the Henderson Lorikeet Vini stepheni (2015 population estimate: 554–3014). Henderson Crake Zapornia atra increased to pre-eradication levels following anticipated mortality during the operation (2015 population estimate: 4,960–20,783). A temporary reduction of rat predation pressure and rat competition for fruit may have benefitted the reed warbler and the fruit dove, respectively. However, a long drought may have naturally suppressed bird populations prior to the rat eradication operation in 2011, potentially confounding the effects of temporary rat reduction and natural recovery. We therefore cannot unequivocally ascribe the population recovery to the temporary reduction of the rat population. We encourage robust monitoring of island biodiversity both before and after any management operation to better understand responses of endemic species to failed or successful operations.
Clonorchis sinensis and Capillaria hepatica are zoonotic parasites that mainly infect the liver and cause serious liver disorders. However, immunological parameters induced by co-infection with these parasites remain unknown. In this study, for the first time, we investigated immunological profiles induced by co-infection with C. hepatica (CH) in C. sinensis (CS)-infected rats (Sprague–Dawley). Rats were infected primarily with 50 metacercariae of C. sinensis; 4 weeks later, they were subsequently infected with 1000 infective C. hepatica eggs. Significantly higher levels of C. sinensis- or C. hepatica-specific IgG antibodies were found in the sera of rats. Interestingly, no cross-reacting antibody was observed between C. sinensis and C. hepatica infections. Significantly raised eosinophil levels were found in the blood of C. sinensis/C. hepatica co-infected rats (CS + CH) compared to the blood of rats infected singly with C. sinensis. Co-infected rats showed significantly higher levels of lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production compared to a single C. sinensis infection. The worm burden of C. sinensis was significantly reduced in co-infected rats compared to the single C. sinensis infection. These results indicate that the eosinophils, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production induced by subsequent infection with C. hepatica in C. sinensis-infected rats might contribute to the observed C. sinensis worm reduction.
Spring snow cover across Arctic lands has, on average, retreated ∼5 days earlier since the late 1980s compared to the previous 20 years. However, it appears that since about the late 1980s the date the snowline first retreats north during the spring has changed only slightly: in the last ∼20 years snow has not been disappearing significantly earlier. Snowmelt changes observed since the late 1980s have been step-like, unlike the more continuous downward trend seen in Arctic sea-ice extent. At 70° N, several longitudinal segments (of 10°) show significant (negative) trends, while only two longitudinal segments at 60° N show significant trends, one positive and one negative. These variations appear to be related to variations in the Arctic Oscillation (AO). When the springtime AO is strongly positive, snow melts earlier. When it is strongly negative, snow disappears later in the spring. The winter AO is less straightforward. At higher latitudes (70° N), a positive AO during the winter months is correlated with later snowmelt, but at lower latitudes (50° N and 60° N) a positive wintertime AO is correlated with earlier snowmelt. If the AO during the winter months is negative, the reverse is true. Similar stepwise changes (since the late 1980s) have been noted in sea surface temperatures and in phytoplankton abundance as well as in snow cover.
Adulticides applied against mosquitoes can reduce vector populations during times of high arbovirus transmission. However, impacts of these insecticides on pollinators and other non-target organisms are of concern to mosquito control professionals, beekeepers and others. We evaluated mortality of Culex quinquefasciatus and Apis mellifera when caged insects were exposed to low and high label rates of four common adulticides (Aqua-Pursuit™ [permethrin], Duet® [prallethrin + sumithrin], Fyfanon® [malathion] and Scourge® [resmethrin]) at six distances up to 91.4 m from a truck-mounted ultra-low-volume sprayer. Honey bee mortality was both absolutely low (<10%) and low relative to mosquito mortality for most products, distances, and application rates. Exceptions were at the high rate of Fyfanon (honey bee mortality of 22–100% at distances ≤61 m) and the low rate of Scourge (mortality <10% for both insects). The greatest ratios of mosquito-to-honey bee mortality were found for the low rate of Fyfanon (30× greater) and the high rate of Duet (50× greater). Aqua-Pursuit and Fyfanon tended to increase mortality of both species at closer distances and at higher application rate; this was related to increased number and size of spray droplets. Wind speed and temperature had inconsistent effects on mortality of mosquitoes only. In this bioassay designed to have insects directly intercept insecticide droplets, mosquito adulticides applied at low rates and at >61 m had limited impacts on honey bee mortality while providing effective mosquito control.
Deep-drilling operations in glaciers require a fluid to maintain hydrostatic equilibrium and prevent closure due to plastic flow of the ice. Many past practices have employed various fluid mixtures using fuel oil as the base. The case for butyl acetate is presented here as an adequately dense and environmentally safe drilling fluid. Results from the 1990 drill season are highly favorable.
Images are presented of the starburst galaxy M82 from a 20-station global VLBI experiment with an angular resolution of up to 3 mas. These images resolve several of the sources into a number of components and with future VLBI experiments the expansion of these components may be tracked on a ∼2 year timescale. Expansion of one of the brightest remnants in M82 has already been measured on a ∼10 year timescale using the European VLBI Network (EVN) alone and an expansion rate of 10,000 km s−1 calculated. Furthermore, limits on the deceleration of this remnant have been deduced. Further VLBI experiments will be able to better constrain the deceleration of the remnants on a ∼10 year timescale as they continue to interact with the interstellar medium in M82.
The Molonglo fan-beam survey is a digitized survey carried out in March and April 1966, using the 1 mile E-W arm of the Molonglo cross operating at 408 MHz. Three 1´.5 fan beams separated by 1´.5 in right ascension were used. The survey covered the region in right ascension from 10h30m to 18h30m and in declination from +18° to —40°. The region common to the 4C survey has been analysed and we have obtained right ascensions for the 4C sources.
In aperture synthesis the formation of an image involves the two steps of spatial correlation across an aperture and transformation to the image. This is closely related to conventional imaging with a lens (Cole, 1977a), which Abbé interpreted as two successive transformations at the surfaces of the lens. With the simple lens the image is the light intensity in the output plane (Figure 1(a)). In aperture synthesis (Figure 1(b)) the image is the transform of the correlation but no detection takes place. The image corresponds to the ‘light’ amplitude rather than intensity.
We summarize previous work on hydrodynamic ionization fronts and new work where magnetic fields are incorporated into their structures. We describe recent work on recombination front structures and outline refinements which need to be made to both them and ionization fronts.
Neptunium-237 will be present in radioactive wastes over extended time periods due to its long half-life (2.13 × 106 years). Understanding its behaviour under conditions relevant to radioactive waste disposal is therefore of particular importance. Here, microcosm experiments were established using sediments from a legacy lime workings with high-pH conditions as an analogue of cementitious intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal. To probe the influence of Fe biogeochemistry on Np(V) in these systems, additional Fe(III) (as ferrihydrite) was added to select experiments. Biogeochemical changes were tracked in experiments with low levels of Np(V) (20 Bq ml–1; 3.3 μM), whilst parallel higher concentration systems (2.5 KBq ml–1; 414 μM) allowed X-ray absorption spectroscopy. As expected, microbial reduction processes developed in microbially-active systems with an initial pH of 10; however, during microbial incubations the pH dropped from 10 to ∼7, reflecting the high levels of microbial metabolism occurring in these systems. In microbially-active systems without added Fe(III), 90% sorption of Np(V) occurred within one hour with essentially complete removal by one day. In the ferrihydrite-amended systems, complete sorption of Np(V) to ferrihydrite occurred within one hour. For higher-activity sediments, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at end points where Fe(II) ingrowth was observed confirmed that complete reductive precipitation of Np(V) to Np(IV) had occurred under similar conditions to low-level Np experiments. Finally, pre-reduced, Fe(III)-reducing sediments, with and without added Fe(III) and held at pH 10, were spiked with Np(V). These alkaline pre-reduced sediments showed significant removal of Np to sediments, and XAS confirmed partial reduction to Np(IV) with the no Fe system, and essentially complete reduction to Np(IV) in the Fe(III)-enriched systems. This suggested an indirect, Fe(II)-mediated pathway for Np(V) reduction under alkaline conditions. Microbial analyses using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing suggested a role for alkali-tolerant, Gram-positive Firmicutes in coupled Fe(III) reduction and Np immobilization in these experiments.
Uranium incorporation into magnetite and its behaviour during subsequent oxidation has been investigated at high pH to determine the uranium retention mechanism(s) on formation and oxidative perturbation of magnetite in systems relevant to radioactive waste disposal. Ferrihydrite was exposed to U(VI)aq containing cement leachates (pH 10.5–13.1) and crystallization of magnetite was induced via addition of Fe(II)aq. A combination of XRD, chemical extraction and XAS techniques provided direct evidence that U(VI) was reduced and incorporated into the magnetite structure, possibly as U(V), with a significant fraction recalcitrant to oxidative remobilization. Immobilization of U(VI) by reduction and incorporation into magnetite at high pH, and with significant stability upon reoxidation, has clear and important implications for limiting uranium migration in geological disposal of radioactive wastes.