The complex thermochemical and thermomechanical environments in high temperature propulsion and energy generation systems often demand the use of suites of materials with disparate properties. Unique combinations of materials that simultaneously function to optimize mechanical, thermal, and environmental properties can enable breakthroughs in design and system capability. This article focuses on interlayers that function as environmental barriers and promote adhesion of the ceramic thermal barriers to metallic substrates. The structure, composition, processing, and performance of major classes of bond coatings are briefly reviewed. Challenges for the development of new coating systems and for prediction of their performance in service are addressed.