Although insulin has been shown to stimulate muscle protein accretion in nonruminants (e.g., Wray-Cahen et al., 1998) evidence for this same effect in ruminants has been equivocal (e.g., Oddy et al., 1987; Wolff et al., 1989). Moreover, when insulin has been reported to have an anabolic effect in ruminants, the animal has been in the fasted state. In addition, Garlick and Grant (1988) have shown that branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) enhanced insulin-stimulated protein synthesis in fasted rats. The primary aim of the present study was to ascertain whether insulin increases phenylalanine (Phe) uptake (used as an index of skeletal muscle protein anabolism) across the hind limb of fed lambs. A secondary aim was to determine if infusion of BCAA, alone or in combination with insulin, would stimulate Phe uptake greater than insulin alone.