Our recent applications of the atom-probe field ion microscope to the study of physics and chemistry of materials at the atomic level are summarized. The materials applicability of field ion microscopy has recently been extended to silicon, silicide, graphite, high Tc superconductors, and other materials. Atom-probe field ion microscopy has been used for atomic layer by atomic layer chemical analysis of surfaces in alloy and impurity segregations, for analyzing the compositional changes across metal-semiconductor interfaces, and for studying formation of cluster ions in laser stimulated field desorption. The energetics of atoms in solids and on surfaces can be studied by a direct kinetic energy analysis of field desorbed ions using a high resolution pulsed-laser time-of-flight atom-probe and by other field ion microscope measurements. The site specific binding energy of surface atoms can be measured at low temperature, where the atomic structure of the surface is still perfectly defined, to an accuracy of about 0.1 to 0.3 eV.