State-of-the-art semiconductor devices require an accurate control of the complete twodimensional dopant distribution. The routine use of process simulators to predict the envisaged distributions and their resulting accuracy, is strongly linked to the physical models contained in these programs as well as their calibration. Whereas SIMS and SRP have been used extensively for the calibration of 1D-profiles, calibration of 2D-profiles has been very limited.
In this work, we report some results obtained with the 2D-profiling techniques SSRM (Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy) and SCM (Scanning Capacitance Microscopy ) for the study of two-dimensional effects on diffusion. In particular, we discuss the role of the nitride spacer on the lateral diffusion of arsenic and boron. Using series of transistors with different nitride spacers with or without TEOS-liners, a strong dependence between the lateral diffusion and the nitride spacer thickness can be observed using SSRM and SCM. The process flow eliminates the possible contribution of Transient enhanced diffusion (TED) as a dominant mechanism. At the same time an enhancement of the lateral stress underneath the spacers has been observed with CBED and Raman, suggesting a correlation between the lateral diffusion and the nitride spacers. The enhanced diffusion of As and B is strongly linked to the spacer size whereby the differences in enhancement suggest that the proximity of the dopants to the stress field field region is an important parameter.