To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Honeybee foraging can transfer exogenous genes from genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to closely related plants, which not only induces potential ecological risks but also contaminates non-GM seeds or honey products with GM ingredients. These events may lead to international trade disputes. Chinese honeybees (Apis cerana cerana Fabricius) and a herbicide (glufosinate)-resistant GM strain of B. napus (Z7B10) were studied to examine the effects of honeybee short-range foraging on oilseed rape gene flow and honey ingredients. Results showed variable frequencies of gene flow between GM and non-GM oilseed rape cultivars, with the highest frequency under nylon net isolation with artificially stocked honeybees, the lowest frequency under nylon net isolation alone, and an intermediate frequency under natural pollination, suggesting the important role of honeybee foraging in gene flow frequency. Additionally, GM pollen grains were found in honey collected from honeybees foraging on both GM and non-GM oilseed rape cultivars. The phosphinothricin acetyltransferase protein was also detected in both unbroken pollen-containing and pollen-free honey by protein testing strips, suggesting that honeybee foraging on GM oilseed rape could lead to contamination with GM ingredients. Overall, the results provide a direct scientific basis for the ecological risk assessment and safety management of GM oilseed rape.
A Basic Angle (BA) of 106.5° separates the view directions of Gaia's two fields of view (FoV). A precise determination of the BA variations (BAV) is essential to guarantee a correct reconstruction of the global astrometric sphere, as residual systematic errors would result in, e.g., a bias in the parallaxes of the final Gaia catalog. The Basic Angle Monitoring (BAM) device, which provides a reliable and accurate estimation of BAV, shows that there exists a ~1 mas amplitude, 6-h period BA oscillation. It's essential to verify to what extent this signal is caused by real BAV, or is at least in part an effect of the BAM device itself. Here, we propose an astrometric on-sky approach to re-determine the 6-h periodic BAV. The results of this experiment, which treated a full day (17 Oct 2016) of Gaia astrometric data, recover a value for the 6-h oscillation of 1.856±0.857 mas. This is consistent, within the errors, with the BAM finding for that day.
The numerical stability of the explicit precise algorithm, which was developed for the viscoplastic materials, was analyzed. It was found that this algorithm is not absolutely stable. A necessary but not sufficient condition for the numerical stability was deduced. It showed that the time step in numerical calculation should be less than a certain value to guarantee the stability of explicit precise algorithm. Through a series of numerical examples, the stability analysis on the explicit precise algorithm was proved to be reliable. At last, an iterative algorithm was presented for viscoplastic materials. Both of the theoretical and numerical results showed that the iterative algorithm is unconditionally stable and its convergence rate is rapid. In practice, the explicit precise algorithm and iterative algorithm can be combined to obtain reliable results with the minimum computing costs.
Optical properties and thermal relaxation dynamics of resonantly excited plasmons are important in applications for optoelectronics, biomedicine, energy, and catalysis. Geometric optics of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin films containing uniformly or asymmetrically distributed polydisperse reduced AuNPs or uniformly distributed monodisperse solution-synthesized AuNPs were recently evaluated using a compact linear algebraic sum. Algebraic calculation of geometric transmission, reflection, and attenuation for AuNP-PDMS films provides a simple, workable alternative to effective medium approximations, computationally expensive methods, and fitting of experimental data. This approach allows for the summative optical responses of a sequence of 2D elements comprising a 3D assembly to be analyzed. Thin PDMS films containing 3-7 micron layers of reduced AuNPs were fabricated with a novel diffusive-reduction synthesis technique. Rapid diffusive reduction of AuNPs into asymmetric PDMS thin films provided superior photothermal response relative to thicker films with AuNPs reduced throughout, with a photon-to-heat conversion of up to 3000°C/watt which represents 3-230-fold increase over previous AuNP-functionalized systems. Later work showed that introduction of AuNPs into PDMS enhanced thermoplasmonic dissipation coincident with internal reflection of incident resonant irradiation. Measured thermal emission and dynamics of AuNP-PDMS thin films exceeded emission and dynamics attributable by finite element analysis to Mie absorption, Fourier heat conduction, Rayleigh convection, and Stefan-Boltzmann radiation. Refractive-index matching experiments and measured temperature profiles indicated AuNP-containing thin films internally reflected light and dissipated power transverse to the film surface. Enhanced thermoplasmonic dissipation from metal-polymer nanocomposite thin films could affect opto- and bio-electronic implementation of these systems.
To systematically summarise the peer-reviewed literature relating to the aetiology, clinical presentation, investigation and treatment of geniculate neuralgia.
Articles published in English between 1932 and 2012, identified using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases.
The search terms ‘geniculate neuralgia’, ‘nervus intermedius neuralgia’, ‘facial pain’, ‘otalgia’ and ‘neuralgia’ were used to identify relevant papers.
Fewer than 150 reported cases were published in English between 1932 and 2012. The aetiology of the condition remains unknown, and clinical presentation varies. Non-neuralgic causes of otalgia should always be excluded by a thorough clinical examination, audiological assessment and radiological investigations before making a diagnosis of geniculate neuralgia. Conservative medical treatment is always the first-line therapy. Surgical treatment should be offered if medical treatment fails. The two commonest surgical options are transection of the nervus intermedius, and microvascular decompression of the nerve at the nerve root entry zone of the brainstem. However, extracranial intratemporal division of the cutaneous branches of the facial nerve may offer a safer and similarly effective treatment.
The response to medical treatment for this condition varies between individuals. The long-term outcomes of surgery remain unknown because of limited data.
Human infection with the emerging avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China in 2013 has raised global concerns. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of 27 confirmed human influenza A(H7N9) cases in Jiangsu Province, to elaborate poultry-related exposures and to provide a more precise estimate of the incubation periods of the illness. The median incubation period was 6 days (range 2–10 days) in cases with single known exposure and was 7·5 days (range 6·5–12·5 days) in cases with exposures on multiple days, difference between the two groups was not significant (Z = −1·895, P = 0·058). The overall median incubation period for all patients was estimated to be 7·5 days (range 2–12·5 days). Our findings further highlight the necessity for public health authorities to extend the period of medical surveillance from 7 days to 10 days.
The magnetic reconnection (MR) configuration was constructed by using two approaching laser-produced plasma bubbles. The characteristics of the MR current sheet were investigated. The driving energy of the laser pulse affects the type of the current sheet. The experiments present “Y-type” and “X-type” current sheets for larger and smaller driving energy, respectively. The energetic electrons were found to be well-collimated. The formation and ejection of plasmoid from the “Y-type” current sheet was expected to enhance the number of accelerated electrons.
Multilayers of Fe(100)/Ag(100) were grown by MBE and analyzed with in situ RHEED and MÖssbauer spectroscopy. These films had a constant Ag layer thickness of 40 monolayers (ML) and varying Fe layer thicknesses of 3, 6, and 9 ML. Using MÖssbauer spectroscopy the presence of three Fe sites was inferred. From considerations of the hyperflne parameters and the relative intensities of the sextets, we assign one site to the bulk, and one to each interface: Fe on Ag and Ag on Fe. We believe that one explanation of this is differing tetragonal distortions at the two interfaces. Consequently, another series of films was grown in an attempt to distinguish these sites. These films were essentially identical to the 9 ML film above, but the Fe layers were composed of 56Fe, with a 2 ML 57Fe probe layer effused at the bulk and at each interface in turn. At this point 57Fe MÖssbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the hyperfine field and its temperature dependence for each of the three sites.
We have grown a series of Fe(110)/Ag(111)/Fe(110) sandwich structures using a PHI 430B MBE system and analyzed their magnetic properties using transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy. The heterostructures consisted of two 30-monolayer (ML) 56Fe(110) slabs separated by an intervening Ag(111) layer 2 to 35 ML thick, with a 2 ML 57Fe Mössbauer probe layer placed at one of the Fe/Ag interfaces. We found that temperature dependence of the hyperfine field in the probe layer and the saturation hyperfine field value as well stronly depend on the Ag interlayer thickness. This result demonstrates that there exists an interlayer magnetic exchange interaction between the Fe layers across Ag. In addition, preliminary evidence suggests that this is probably an RKKY interaction.
Two series of Fe/Ag multilayers were grown in a Perkin-Elmer 430B MBE system, one of the Fe(110)/Ag(lll) orientation and another of the Fe(100)/Ag(100) orientation. Vastly different techniques were developed by this group and others to achieve epitaxial growth of both of these systems. Using RHEED, it was inferred that the optimal growth of Fe(110) on Ag(lll) occurred at a substrate temperature of 180° C. In contrast, the growth of Fe(lO0)/Ag(100) proceeded with the sharpest RHEED streaks at a reduced substrate temperature. We believe that these fundamentally different growth parameters are the result of physically different growth modes, conjectured to be: edge growth (Fe 110), and a more nucleated growth (Fe 100).
Accordingly, dissimilar magnetic interfacial properties are also strongly in evidence, accounted for by the structural differences associated with the different Fe planes. Furthermore, Fe(110) layers as thin as 3 ML were grown on Ag(lll) and showed no superparamagnetism and a genuine 2-dimensional behavior of M(T). However, the Fe(100) on Ag(100) multilayers in a similar thickness range exhibited strong relaxation and a comparatively reduced Curie temperature.
A novel phase modulator has been designed and analysed, assuming fabrication in a silicon-on-insulator material such as SIMOX. The proposed modulator is based upon a transverse p-i-n structure, utilising the plasma dispersion effect to produce the desired refractive index change in an optical rib waveguide. The device has been studied using the MEDICI two dimensional device simulation package to optimise the injected carrier interaction with the propagating optical mode. Whilst the device is designed to support a single optical mode, it measures several micrometers in cross sectional dimensions, thereby simplifying fabrication and allowing efficient coupling to other single mode devices such as optical fibers. Furthermore the device has an extremely high figure of merit, predicting over 200 degrees of induced phase shift per volt per mm. This implies a short active length together with a low power requirement.
A combined structural and optical assessment of cubic (3C-) SiC thin films grown on Si (100) substrates by chemical vapor epitaxy (CVD) is presented. The CVD growth was performed at both atmospheric and low (100 Torr) pressure, using a vertical reactor. The CVD-grown 3C-SiC films with different growth time were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to be single crystalline with a high degree of crystal perfection. The film thickness was determined from FTIR spectra. Variations of X-ray, FTIR and Raman spectra with different growth conditions and film thicknesses are studied comparatively. Related problems are discussed.
In this paper, we report the MBE growth of high nitrogen content lattice-matched InAs1−xNx (x=0.38) single crystal epitaxial films on GaAs. The nitrogen incorporation is about an order higher than previously reported on other mixed group V nitride alloys. These data are consistent with a nitrogen solubility limit calculation in various III-V binary alloys, which predicts orders of magnitude higher nitrogen incorporation in InAs than any other alloys. InAsN growths were obtained using a modified ECR-MBE system with atomic-nitrogen generated by an ECR plasma source. Improved crystal quality was obtained using a “template” growth technique. An x-ray linewidth of 270 arc-s was achieved on a 0.4 μm thick InAs0.62N0.38/GaAs multi-layer structure. Hall effect data show these InAsN films are semi-metallic.
Multiwalled B-C-N nanotubes of various morphologies and chemical compositions were synthesized by reacting C-based nanotube templates with boron oxide and nitrogen at 1573 K- 2173 K. The nanotubes were thoroughly analysed using a high-resolution field-emission 300 kV transmission electron microscope (TEM), an energy-filtered field-emission 300 kV electron microscope (Omega filter), an electron energy loss spectrometer and an energy dispersion X-ray detector. Transport and field emission properties of the nanotubes were studied using a low energy electron point source microscope and via in-situ measurements in TEM equipped with a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) unit.
We have observed micromagnetic structure in real computer hard disks with the typical structure of C/Co alloy/Cr/NiP/Al(substrate) using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (LTEM). A chemical etching method was introduced to successfully prepare LTEM specimens directly from the computer hard disks with both smooth and mechanically textured substrates. Micromagnetic structural features, e.g., ripples and vortices, were studied in disks in bitswritten, ac-demagnetized, and saturation remanent magnetic states.
PbI2 clusters confined in spaces of LTA zeolite are successfully prepared through vapour phase. An HREM image showed that the crystallinity of the zeolite was preserved after preparation and showed directly that the clusters were incorporated into the α-cages. Absorption spectra were measured by diffuse reflection method as a function of loading density of PbI2 molecules. Several absorption bands from different cluster sizes were observed and showed remarkable blue shift. At the maximum loading, extra reflections, which are forbidden for Fm3A of LTA, were observed in electron and X-ray diffraction patterns. The appearence of the extra reflections and the dependence of absorption curve on the loading density suggest that superlattice of clusters was produced. The characteristic feature of zeolites as containers to make an artificial superlattice of clusters is pointed out.