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Introduction: Survival from cardiac arrest has been linked to the quality of resuscitation care. Unfortunately, healthcare providers frequently underperform in these critical scenarios, with a well-documented deterioration in skills weeks to months following advanced life support courses. Improving initial training and preventing decay in knowledge and skills are a priority in resuscitation education. The spacing effect has repeatedly been shown to have an impact on learning and retention. Despite its potential advantages, the spacing effect has seldom been applied to organized education training or complex motor skill learning where it has the potential to make a significant impact. The purpose of this study was to determine if a resuscitation course taught in a spaced format compared to the usual massed instruction results in improved retention of procedural skills. Methods: EMS providers (Paramedics and Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT)) were block randomized to receive a Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) course in either a spaced format (four 210-minute weekly sessions) or a massed format (two sequential 7-hour days). Blinded observers used expert-developed 4-point global rating scales to assess video recordings of each learner performing various resuscitation skills before, after and 3-months following course completion. Primary outcomes were performance on infant bag-valve-mask ventilation (BVMV), intraosseous (IO) insertion, infant intubation, infant and adult chest compressions. Results: Forty-eight of 50 participants completed the study protocol (26 spaced and 22 massed). There was no significant difference between the two groups on testing before and immediately after the course. 3-months following course completion participants in the spaced cohort scored higher overall for BVMV (2.2 ± 0.13 versus 1.8 ± 0.14, p=0.012) without statistically significant difference in scores for IO insertion (3.0 ± 0.13 versus 2.7± 0.13, p= 0.052), intubation (2.7± 0.13 versus 2.5 ± 0.14, p=0.249), infant compressions (2.5± 0.28 versus 2.5± 0.31, p=0.831) and adult compressions (2.3± 0.24 versus 2.2± 0.26, p=0.728) Conclusion: Procedural skills taught in a spaced format result in at least as good learning as the traditional massed format; more complex skills taught in a spaced format may result in better long term retention when compared to traditional massed training as there was a clear difference in BVMV and trend toward a difference in IO insertion.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
The Cosmic Background Explorer, launched November 18, 1989, has nearly completed its first full mapping of the sky with all three of its instruments: a Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) covering 0.1 to 10 mm, a set of Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) operating at 3.3, 5.7, and 9.6 mm, and a Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) spanning 1 to 300 µm in ten bands. A preliminary map of the sky derived from DIRBE data is presented. Initial cosmological implications include: a limit on the Comptonization y parameter of 10−3, on the chemical potential μ parameter of 10−2, a strong limit on the existence of a hot smooth intergalactic medium, and a confirmation that the dipole anisotropy has the spectrum expected from a Doppler shift of a blackbody. There are no significant anisotropies in the microwave sky detected, other than from our own galaxy and a cosθ dipole anisotropy whose amplitude and direction agree with previous data. At shorter wavelengths, the sky spectrum and anisotropies are dominated by emission from ‘local’ sources of emission within our Galaxy and Solar System. Preliminary comparison of IRAS and DIRBE sky brightnesses toward the ecliptic poles shows the IRAS values to be significantly higher than found by DIRBE at 100 μm. We suggest the presence of gain and zero-point errors in the IRAS total brightness data. The spacecraft, instrument designs, and data reduction methods are described.
The genetic influences in human brain structure and function and impaired functional connectivities are the hallmarks of the schizophrenic brain. To explore how common genetic variants affect the connectivities in schizophrenia, we applied genome-wide association studies assaying the abnormal neural connectivities in schizophrenia as quantitative traits.
We recruited 161 first-onset and treatment-naive patients with schizophrenia and 150 healthy controls. All the participants underwent scanning with a 3 T-magnetic resonance imaging scanner to acquire structural and functional imaging data and genotyping using the HumanOmniZhongHua-8 BeadChip. The brain-wide association study approach was employed to account for the inherent modular nature of brain connectivities.
We found differences in four abnormal functional connectivities [left rectus to left thalamus (REC.L–THA.L), left rectus to right thalamus (REC.L–THA.R), left superior orbital cortex to left thalamus (ORBsup.L–THA.L) and left superior orbital cortex to right thalamus (ORBsup.L–THA.R)] between the two groups. Univariate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based association revealed that the SNP rs6800381, located nearest to the CHRM3 (cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3) gene, reached genomic significance (p = 1.768 × 10−8) using REC.L–THA.R as the phenotype. Multivariate gene-based association revealed that the FAM12A (family with sequence similarity 12, member A) gene nearly reached genomic significance (nominal p = 2.22 × 10–6, corrected p = 0.05).
Overall, we identified the first evidence that the CHRM3 gene plays a role in abnormal thalamo-orbital frontal cortex functional connectivity in first-episode treatment-naive patients with schizophrenia. Identification of these genetic variants using neuroimaging genetics provides insights into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help us determine the mechanisms of dysfunction in schizophrenia.
The thermal shock resistance (TSR) of ZnS wave-transparent ceramic depends on not only the mechanical and thermal properties of materials, but also the aerodynamic heating, pneumatic pressure, external constraint, size, aspect ratio and other factors in its actual service process. The theoretical model was established by introducing the analytical solution of transient heat conduction problem of ZnS plate under aerodynamic heating into its thermal stress field model and the pneumatic pressure was introduced. The present work mainly focused on the influences of constraint, size and aspect ratio on the critical rupture temperature difference of ZnS plate subjected to aerodynamic heating and pneumatic pressure. The numerical simulation was also conducted to verify the theoretical model. The results show that the large heat transfer condition corresponds to the poor TSR unless the constraint is too strong; the square plate provides the better TSR in case of different pneumatic pressures; a reasonable side length according to the range of pneumatic pressure would lead to the better TSR.
We determined the prevalence and seasonality of infections by Fasciola of goats and bovine species (cattle and water buffalo) in Hubei and Anhui provinces of China. Faecal samples were collected at 2- to 3-month intervals from 200 goats in Hubei province and from 152 bovine species in Anhui province. All faecal samples were examined for the presence of parasites. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of 39 Fasciola worms from Anhui province. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in goats ranged between 3.5 and 37.0%, with mean eggs per gram (EPG) ranging between 29.0 and 166.0. Prevalence and EPG exhibited downward trends over time with significant differences. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in cattle ranged between 13.3 and 46.2% (mean EPG, 36.4–100.0), and that of water buffalo ranged between 10.3 and 35.4% (mean EPG, 25.0–89.6), with a higher prevalence of infection and EPG from June to October compared with December to March. Analysis of ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences revealed that F. hepatica and F. gigantica were present in all bovine species of Anhui province and that F. gigantica mainly infected water buffalo. This is the first demonstration of Fasciola infection in Hubei province and detection of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in Anhui province. The present study of Hubei province shows that mass treatment of livestock with closantel sodium injections in April and August/September controlled Fasciola infection effectively.
Co-infections of cystic echinococcosis (CE) and HIV/AIDS is rare. We report four CE cases that were HIV positive. Three out of the four patients underwent a surgical operation to remove the hydatid cysts in their livers. The operation confirmed that in two of the cases their cysts had ruptured. These patients were given 3 months of albendazole after the operation. Follow-up showed they were remarkably improved in term of their health, although they were still HIV antibody positive 6 months after surgical treatment. Interestingly, the treatment remarkably increased their CD4+ cell population. We showed that surgery is suitable for treating hepatic cystic echinococcosis with HIV/AIDS co-infection.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
The 22nd season of excavations at Tell Brak took place in April and May of 1998, with David Oates as Project Director and Geoff Emberling as Field Director. It is our pleasure to mention institutions and people who made the project such a success. This season was primarily funded by the Adelaide Milton de Groot Fund (in memory of the de Groot and Hawley families) of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Carsten Niebuhr Institute of the University of Copenhagen, Dell Computer Corporation and the Museum of Anthropology of the University of Michigan also generously provided funds and equipment. We would like to thank Dr Sultan Muhesen, Director-General of Antiquities and Museums in Syria, for his encouragement and interest, as well as Dr Adnan Bounni, Director of Excavations, and our representative, Abd el Messih Baghdo. The excavation team this season was exceptionally enthusiastic and dedicated. Jack Cheng was registrar, a position that included designing an excavation database as well as photography and drawing; Tim Skuldboel and Torben Larsen were surveyors; Lisa Cooper, Zenia Hoeserich, Stine Rossel, Suanna Selby and Laura Tedesco were site supervisors; Michael Charles and Mette Marie Hald supervised the notation program; Jill Weber worked on faunal material; Jean-François de Lapérouse of the Metropolitan Museum was objects conservator; Henry Wright analysed samples of chipped stone; and Donald Hansen and Joan Oates gave crucial help in architecture, excavation and ceramic analysis. David Oates provided helpful advice and support. We thank them all for their many contributions to work in the field and to this report.
Undoped layers of GaN grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates have been characterized by photoluminescence, photocapacitance and photoinduced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS). Photocapacitance reveals in all samples two specific signatures at photon energies of 1 eV and 2.5 eV. The photocapacitance decrease observed at 1 eV seems to be due to an electron capture process from the valence band, whereas the capacitance increase at 2.5 eV is related to an electron emission process. The fact that the capacitance step at 1 eV is only seen after photoionization at energies above 2.5 eV, and the observed correlation between its amplitude and the photoluminescence intensity of the “yellow band”, lead us to conclude that both transitions are linked to the same trap, which is also suggested to be responsible for the yellow band. The position of this trap, at 2.5 eV below the conduction band, is confirmed by PICTS measurements, that show a hole thermal emission activation energy of 0.9 eV at 350 K.
We report the results of photoluminescence measurements on a number of GaN thin films grown by MBE on GaAs (111)B substrates. In particular, we draw attention to a new observation of a line at approximately 3.40eV which is accompanied by complex fine structure and interpret it as due to a donor-acceptor (DA) transition. Assuming a donor energy of 30meV, we derive an acceptor binding energy of approximately 80meV which is very much smaller than the accepted value of 250meV for the well established Mg acceptor. However, our result is in agreement with a recent estimate of the hydrogenic acceptor energy as being 85meV.
Films of GaN have been grown using a modified MBE method in which the active nitrogen is supplied from an RF activated plasma source. Wurtzite films grown on (0 0 1) oriented GaAs substrates show highly defective, ordered polycrystalline growth with a columnar structure; the (0 0 0 1) planes of the layers being parallel to the (0 0 1) planes of the GaAs substrate. Films grown using a coincident As flux, however, have a single crystal zinc-blende growth mode. They have better structural and optical properties. To improve the properties of the wurtzite films we have studied the growth of such films on (1 1 1)A and (1 1 1)B oriented GaAs substrates. The improved structural properties of such films, assessed using x-ray and TEM methods, correlate with better low temperature PL performance.
This paper discusses the growth of Mg-doped GaN samples using a modified Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) method. Our results suggest that the dopant is incorporated from a surface population maintained by the incident Mg flux by a rapid diffusion mechanism. It follows that the chemical concentration will increase with time of growth and that the p-doping level will also increase progressively with film thickness for a given Mg flux. Increasing the Mg flux to the surface results at first in a higher doping density, but this saturates when the Mg surface concentration reaches a finite value.
Residual stress in MEMS is of inherent importance in various respects. This study proposes a specific method using ANSYS including the birth and death method and combined with the optimal method (SCGM) to reduce the residual stresses during the CMOS fabrication process. The suitable cooling temperature for decreasing the residual stress is proposed and available. It demonstrates that the suitable parameter on the fabrication can reduce the residual stress in MEMS devices without any extra manufacturing process or external apparatus. The proposed method can expand to simulate the realistic MEMS model effectively.
Silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) were synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using silane as a silicon source. Allylamine was used as passivation ligands to form water-soluble Si NPs. Finally, aqueous asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation was used to successfully separate the polydisperse Si NPs into monodisperse Si NP fractions.
Over the past decade, the PV industry has witnessed tremendous growth in manufacturing scale and technology advancement, with PV generated electricity cost ever approaching grid parity. Among them, Si based thin film technology has made substantial progress in demonstrating its inherent advantages in lower material cost, ease of manufacturing and higher energy yield, etc. More recently, reduced product prices and competing technologies from crystalline silicon and other thin film technologies have made amorphous and microcrystalline silicon based thin film technology very challenging, and requires further increase in module efficiency and decrease in manufacturing cost. As one of the few companies in the world with significant manufacturing capacity for tandem thin film Si PV products, Chint Solar (Astronergy) has been at the forefront of technology development for the mass production of large-scale (Gen. 5, 1.43m2) Si thin film solar modules in the last 5 years. We will review major technology advancements which have been mass production proven and led to the mass produced tandem silicon thin film module with 10.0% plus stabilized efficiency, along with the field performance of those modules.
Polycrystalline solutions of 0.6(Bi0.9La0.1)FeO3-0.4Pb(Ti1-xMnx)O3(BLF-PTM, x=0 and 0.01)have been fabricated by the so-gel process combined with a solid state reaction method. BLF-PTM exhibits the nonlinear dielectric and piezoelectric responses under applied fields. Rayleigh law has been used to evaluate the irreversible contribution of the domain walls movement to the nonlinear dielectric response. Rayleigh analysis reveals that a mechanism with no associated loss exists in the BLF-PTM of x=0.01. The real part piezoelectric coefficient of BLF-PTM linearly increases with increasing the electric fields. The dielectric and piezoelectric nonlinear coefficient of 0.17×10-3 m/V and 0.897 ×10-17 m2/V2 respectively are obtained for BLF-PTM of x=0.01,which are smaller than those of 0.22×10-3 m/V and 1.19 ×10-17 m2/V2 for BLF-PTM of x=0. Our results indicate that Mn doping increase the intrinsic piezoelectric properties of BLF-PTM reducing the extrinsic contributions to piezoelectric responses.