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In this paper, a novel single-cavity triangular substrate-integrated waveguide (TSIW) dual-band filter loading a complementary triangular split ring resonator (CTSRR) is proposed, which has three transmission zeros (TZs) in the stopband in total. The dual-band response is achieved by the CTSRR and the degenerate modes of the TSIW cavity. In order to control the TZs, we propose two adjustment techniques, shift feeding technique and adding via perturbation. In addition, the CTSRR etched on the surface can produce a new TZ in the upper first-passband. Finally, a dual-band filter with three TZs is simulated, fabricated, and measured. There is a good agreement between the simulated results and measured ones.
The refraction effect at small incidence angles was investigated for solid Al2O3 disks of varying surface roughness, and Al2O3 and LaB6 powder layers of varying thickness and roughness using pseudo parallel beam optics. For the disks the peak shift Δ2θ correlated approximately inversely with ζmax, the maximum slope of a sinusoidal model of the surface roughness. For a disk polished with 3θm diamond, Δ2θ exceeded that predicted by the James equation. For the powder layers Δ2θ was very small for the thinnest layers. For thicker, rougher layers Δ2θ was larger and was probably due to displacement error from the 0.4° divergence of the Soller slit used and specular reflection of the diffracted beam from the Soller slit leaves.
A new generation of high power laser facilities will provide laser pulses with extremely high powers of 10 petawatt (PW) and even 100 PW, capable of reaching intensities of
in the laser focus. These ultra-high intensities are nevertheless lower than the Schwinger intensity
at which the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED) predicts that a large part of the energy of the laser photons will be transformed to hard Gamma-ray photons and even to matter, via electron–positron pair production. To enable the investigation of this physics at the intensities achievable with the next generation of high power laser facilities, an approach involving the interaction of two colliding PW laser pulses is being adopted. Theoretical simulations predict strong QED effects with colliding laser pulses of
focused to intensities
A multichannel calorimeter system is designed and constructed which is capable of delivering single-shot and broad-band spectral measurement of terahertz (THz) radiation generated in intense laser–plasma interactions. The generation mechanism of backward THz radiation (BTR) is studied by using the multichannel calorimeter system in an intense picosecond laser–solid interaction experiment. The dependence of the BTR energy and spectrum on laser energy, target thickness and pre-plasma scale length is obtained. These results indicate that coherent transition radiation is responsible for the low-frequency component (
1 THz) of BTR. It is also observed that a large-scale pre-plasma primarily enhances the high-frequency component (
3 THz) of BTR.
Plant nitrogen (N) links with many physiological progresses of crop growth and yield formation. Accurate simulation is key to predict crop growth and yield correctly. The aim of the current study was to improve the estimation of N uptake and translocation processes in the whole rice plant as well as within plant organs in the RiceGrow model by using plant and organ maximum, critical and minimum N dilution curves. The maximum and critical N (Nc) demand (obtained from the maximum and critical curves) of shoot and root and Nc demand of organs (leaf, stem and panicle) are calculated by N concentration and biomass. Nitrogen distribution among organs is computed differently pre- and post-anthesis. Pre-anthesis distribution is determined by maximum N demand with no priority among organs. In post-anthesis distribution, panicle demands are met first and then the remaining N is allocated to other organs without priority. The amount of plant N uptake depends on plant N demand and N supplied by the soil. Calibration and validation of the established model were performed on field experiments conducted in China and the Philippines with varied N rates and N split applications; results showed that this improved model can simulate the processes of N uptake and translocation well.
Previous studies have demonstrated that type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) could be triggered by an early childhood infection. Whether maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with T1DM in offspring is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to study the association using a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eighteen studies including 4304 cases and 25 846 participants were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were synthesised using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of associations. Overall, the pooled analysis yielded a statistically significant association between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood T1DM (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07–1.62). Furthermore, six studies that tested maternal enterovirus infection showed a pooled OR of 1.54 (95% CI 1.05–2.27). Heterogeneity from different studies was evident (I2 = 70.1%, P < 0.001) and was mainly attributable to the different study designs, ascertaining methods and sample size among different studies. This study provides evidence for an association between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood T1DM.
Toca 511 (vocimagene amiretrorepvec) is an investigational, conditionally lytic, retroviral replicating vector (RRV). RRVs selectively infect cancer cells due to innate and adaptive immune response defects in cancers that allow virus replication, and the requirement for cell division for virus integration into the genome. Toca 511 spreads through tumors, stably delivering an optimized yeast cytosine deaminase gene that converts the prodrug Toca FC (investigational, extended-release 5-FC) into 5-FU within the tumor microenvironment. 5-FU kills infected dividing cancer cells and surrounding tumor, myeloid derived suppressor cells, and tumor associated macrophages, resulting in long-term tumor immunity in preclinical models. Data from a Phase 1 resection trial showed six durable CRs and extended mOS compared to historical controls. The FDA granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation for Toca 511 & Toca FC in the treatment of patients with rHGG. Toca 5 is an international, randomized, open-label Phase 3 trial (NCT02414165) of Toca 511 & Toca FC versus SOC in patients undergoing resection for first or second recurrence of rHGG. Patients will be stratified by IDH1 status, KPS, and geographic region. Primary endpoint is OS, and secondary endpoints are durable response rate, durable clinical benefit rate, duration of durable response, and 12-month survival rate. Key inclusion criteria are histologically proven GBM or AA, tumor size ≥1cm and ≤5cm, and KPS ≥70. Immune monitoring and molecular profiling will be performed. Approximately 380 patients will be randomized. An IDMC is commissioned to review the safety and efficacy data which includes 2 interim analyses. Enrollment is ongoing.
Athetis lepigone (Möschler) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a new outbreak pest in China. Consequently, it is unclear whether the emergence and spread of the outbreak of this pest are triggered by rapid in situ population size increases in each outbreak area, or by immigrants from a potential source area in China. In order to explore the outbreak process of this pest through a population genetics approach, we developed ten novel polymorphic expressed sequence tags (EST)-derived microsatellites. These new microsatellites had moderately high levels of polymorphism in the tested population. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 19, with an average of 8.6, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.269 to 0.783. A preliminary population genetic analysis using these new microsatellites revealed a lack of population genetic structure in natural populations of A. lepigone. The estimates of recent migration rate revealed strong gene flow among populations. In conclusion, our study developed the first set of EST-microsatellite markers and shed a new light on the population genetic structure of this pest in China.
A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method for determination of clothianidin in brown rice, straw, rice hull, paddy water and paddy sediment was developed and residue levels were determined in the different components. The limit of quantification was set at 0·01 mg/kg for the matrices studied. Clothianidin degradation in straw, paddy water and soil was studied, and clothianidin residues in brown rice, straw, hull and paddy soil were determined. Concurrent recoveries were between 85·6 and 92·5%, with relative standard deviations ranging from 1·3 to 6·8% at three fortification levels between 0·01 and 5·0 mg/kg. The half-lives in straw, paddy water and paddy sediment were found to be 1·9–4·9, 4·1–5·0 and 4·9–6·3 days, respectively. The maximum residues in brown rice, straw, hull and paddy soil samples were 0·38, 1·88, 1·38 and 0·14 mg/kg, respectively.
In usual statistical analyses, because of diversities of proper parameters of pulsars, some interesting features might be smeared. In order to remove these diversities, we use the mean values for all quantities of pulsars, instead of values of individual pulsar, to do statistical analyses. logP/P3 - log τ and logL - logτ have been plotted, here τ P/2P and L denote the characteristic time scale and the radio luminosity of pulsars respectively. The most striking feature is that after its initial dropping to a dip at about τ∼106 yrs, the radio luminosity of pulsar appears to grow up evidently and then redrop again. This feature is difficult to be understood in usual models. However, two tentative interpretations have been given in this paper.
It is a new concept for porous media flow that a hydrodynamic lifting force is generated inside a highly compressible porous layer as a planing surface glides over it. The concept originated from the observation of the pop-out phenomena of red blood cells over the endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) lining the inner surface of our blood vessels (Feng & Weinbaum, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 422, 2000, pp. 282–317). In the current paper, we report an experimental study to examine this concept. A novel testing set-up was developed that consists of a running conveyer belt covered with a soft porous sheet, and a fully instrumented upper planar board, i.e. planing surface. The generation of pore pressure was observed and captured by pressure transducers when the planing surface glides over the porous sheet. Its distribution strongly depends on the relative velocity between the planing surface and the running belt, the mechanical and transport properties of the porous sheet as well as the compression ratios at the leading and trailing edges. The relative contribution of the transiently trapped air to the total lift was evaluated by comparing the pore pressure to the total lifting pressure measured by a load cell mounted between two adjacent pressure transducers. For a typical running condition with a polyester porous material (
, are the porous layer thickness at the leading and trailing edges, respectively;
is the un-deformed porous layer thickness; and
is the velocity of the running belt), over 68 % of the local lift is generated by the pore pressure. The results conclusively verified the validity of lift generation in a highly compressible porous layer as a planing surface glides over it. This study provides the foundation for the application of highly compressible porous media for soft lubrication with minimal frictional losses. It also sheds some light on the biophysics study of the EGL.
Microstructure and electrochemical behavior of stainless steel weld overlay cladding exposed to post weld heat treatment (PWHT) were investigated, wherein pitting and intergranular corrosion behaviors of the cladding material were evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation methods. The results indicated that inclusions, multiple element (Mn, Si, and Al) oxides distributed randomly in the cladding material with a size less than 1 μm. PWHT contributed to carbides precipitation along the δ/γ phase interface and the formation of Cr-depleted zone in the austenite phase. Inclusions acted as the pitting sites in the sample as welded. PWHT reduced the pitting potential and contributed to the formation of larger and deeper pits, which nucleated around the δ/γ phase interface primarily. Existence of carbides and Cr-depleted zone dominated the loss of intergranular corrosion resistance after PWHT.
A modification of the growth structure of Eu-doped GaN (GaN:Eu) from a monolayer to a multilayer structure (MLS) consisting of alternating GaN and GaN:Eu, was shown to enhance the emission properties. Similarly, lowering the growth temperature of the GaN:Eu to 960°C nearly doubled the photoluminescence emission intensity, and also enhanced device performance. Hence, to design a higher power GaN:Eu red LED, a multilayer structure consisting of 40 pairs of alternating GaN and GaN:Eu was grown at 960°C. This combination resulted in the fabrication of an LED with a maximum output power of 110 μW, which is 5.8 times more output power per GaN:Eu layer thickness as compared to the best previously reported device. Moreover, it was found that the MLS sample grown at 960°C maintained a high crystal quality with low surface roughness, which enabled an increase in the number of pairs from 40 pairs to 100 pairs. An MLS-LED consisting of 100 pairs of alternating GaN/GaN:Eu layers was successfully fabricated, and had a maximum output power of 375 μW with an external quantum efficiency of 4.6%. These are the highest values reported for this system.
Omics research has indicated that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is a potential biomarker of meat quality. However, the specific changes and the potential role of HSP70 in postmortem meat quality development need to be further defined. In this study, Arbor Acres broiler chickens (n=126) were randomly categorized into three treatment groups of unstressed control (C), 0.5-h transport (T) and subsequent water shower spray following transport (T/W). Each treatment consisted of six replicates with seven birds each. The birds were transported according to a designed protocol. The pectoralis major (PM) muscles of the transport-stressed broilers were categorized as normal and pale, soft and exudative (PSE)-like muscle samples according to L* and pH24 h values to test the expression and location of HSP70. Results revealed that the activities of plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase increased significantly (P<0.05) in normal and PSE-like muscle samples after transportation. The mRNA expression of HSP70 in normal muscle samples increased significantly (P<0.05) compared with that in the controls after stress. The protein expression of HSP70 increased significantly in normal muscle samples and decreased significantly (P<0.05) in PSE-like muscles. Immuno-fluorescence showed that HSP70 was present in the cytoplasm and on surface membranes of PM muscle cells in the normal samples following stress. Meanwhile, HSP70 was present on the surface membranes and extracellular matrix but was barely visible in the cytoplasm of the PSE-like samples. Principal component analysis showed high correlations between HSP70 and meat quality and stress indicators. In conclusion, this research suggests that the variation in HSP70 expression may provide a novel insight into the pathways underlying meat quality development.
A new approach is proposed to analyze Bremsstrahlung X-rays that are emitted from laser-produced plasmas (LPP) and are measured by a stack type spectrometer. This new method is based on a spectral tomographic reconstruction concept with the variational principle for optimization, without referring to the electron energy distribution of a plasma. This approach is applied to the analysis of some experimental data obtained at a few major laser facilities to demonstrate the applicability of the method. Slope temperatures of X-rays from LPP are determined with a two-temperature model, showing different spectral characteristics of X-rays depending on laser properties used in the experiments.