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The objective of the trial was to determine the impact of corn source and xylanase on broiler performance, digestibility, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles. Six corn samples were obtained from different regions of the US. Twelve treatments were derived using corn source, with each corn diet being fed with or without xylanase. Three dietary phases were used throughout the trial, starter (d 1–18), grower (d 19–31), and finisher (d 32–41). On d 18 and 41, ileal and excreta contents were collected for the determination of ileal digestible energy (IDE), ileal energy and nitrogen digestibility coefficients (IEDC and INDC), apparent metabolisable energy (AME), and caecal VFA profiles. Day 18 body weight (BW) was affected by corn source and varied between 724 and 764g (P = 0.001). For d 31 BW, there was an interaction of corn source with xylanase (P = 0.001), with the effect of xylanase being inconsistent. The effect of xylanase on feed conversion ratio (FCR) during the grower phase depended on corn source (interactive term, P = 0.021). Xylanase reduced (P = 0.026) FCR during the finisher phase (1.943 vs. 1.992). Variation of corn source influenced digestibility on all evaluated parameters. A range of 152 and 213 kcal/kg for IDE was observed on d 18 and 41, respectively (P = 0.005 and 0.001). The range of AME was 176 kcal/kg on d 18 of age which increased to 194 kcal/kg on d 41. Nitrogen digestibility was influenced by corn source, with an observed range of 4.4 and 6.1% for d 18 and 41, respectively, amongst all corn sources (P = 0.001). Xylanase increased (P = 0.031) the concentration of butyrate in the caecum on d 18. On d 41, an interaction between corn source and xylanase was observed with isovalerate in the caecal contents (P = 0.038). These data demonstrate the impact of varying corn nutrient profiles on nutrient utilisation and growth performance.
We discuss the relative gas-phase abundances found for the predominantly neutral interstellar clouds — located in the Galactic disk and halo, in the LMC or SMC, and (perhaps) in between — along the lines of sight to Sk 108 in the SMC and to SN 1987A in the LMC.
Bullying victimization in childhood is associated with a broad array of serious mental health disturbances, including anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation and behavior. The key goal of this study was to evaluate whether bullying victimization is a true environmental risk factor for psychiatric disturbance using data from 145 bully-discordant monozygotic (MZ) juvenile twin pairs from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and their follow-up into young adulthood.
Since MZ twins share an identical genotype and familial environment, a higher rate of psychiatric disturbance in a bullied MZ twin compared to their non-bullied MZ co-twin would be evidence of an environmental impact of bullying victimization. Environmental correlations between being bullied and the different psychiatric traits were estimated by fitting structural equation models to the full sample of MZ and DZ twins (N = 2824). Environmental associations were further explored using the longitudinal data on the bullying-discordant MZ twins.
Being bullied was associated with a wide range of psychiatric disorders in both children and young adults. The analysis of data on the MZ-discordant twins supports a genuine environmental impact of bullying victimization on childhood social anxiety [odds ratio (OR) 1.7], separation anxiety (OR 1.9), and young adult suicidal ideation (OR 1.3). There was a shared genetic influence on social anxiety and bullying victimization, consistent with social anxiety being both an antecedent and consequence of being bullied.
Bullying victimization in childhood is a significant environmental trauma and should be included in any mental health assessment of children and young adults.
Research was conducted from 2011 to 2014 to determine weed population
dynamics and frequency of glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth with
herbicide programs consisting of glyphosate, dicamba, and residual
herbicides in dicamba-tolerant cotton. Five treatments were maintained in
the same plots over the duration of the experiment: three sequential POST
applications of glyphosate with or without pendimethalin plus diuron PRE;
three sequential POST applications of glyphosate plus dicamba with and
without the PRE herbicides; and a POST application of glyphosate plus
dicamba plus acetochlor followed by one or two POST applications of
glyphosate plus dicamba without PRE herbicides. Additional treatments
included alternating years with three sequential POST applications of
glyphosate only and glyphosate plus dicamba POST with and without PRE
herbicides. The greatest population of Palmer amaranth was observed when
glyphosate was the only POST herbicide throughout the experiment. Although
diuron plus pendimethalin PRE in a program with only glyphosate POST
improved control during the first 2 yr, these herbicides were ineffective by
the final 2 yr on the basis of weed counts from soil cores. The lowest
population of Palmer amaranth was observed when glyphosate plus dicamba were
applied regardless of PRE herbicides or inclusion of acetochlor POST.
Frequency of GR Palmer amaranth was 8% or less when the experiment was
initiated. Frequency of GR Palmer amaranth varied by herbicide program
during 2012 but was similar among all herbicide programs in 2013 and 2014.
Similar frequency of GR Palmer amaranth across all treatments at the end of
the experiment most likely resulted from pollen movement from Palmer
amaranth treated with glyphosate only to any surviving female plants
regardless of PRE or POST treatment. These data suggest that GR Palmer
amaranth can be controlled by dicamba and that dicamba is an effective
alternative mode of action to glyphosate in fields where GR Palmer amaranth
The extraordinary DIBs observed toward Herschel 36 (Dahlstrom et al. 2013) have been analyzed (Oka et al. 2013). The analysis led us to a new way to classify the carriers of DIBs depending on whether the molecules are polar or non-polar. The pronounced Extended Tails toward Red (ETR) observed for DIBs λ5780.5, λ5797.1, and λ6613.6 are explained as due to radiative excitation of high rotational levels of polar carrier molecules in an environment with high radiative temperature ~90 K. Other DIBs (e.g., λ5849.8, λ6196.0, and λ6379.3) which do not show ETR are likely due to non-polar molecules. Model calculations taking into account the interplay of radiative and collisional effects reproduce the observed ETR using realistic molecular parameters if the radiative temperature is sufficiently high (~90 K). The calculation suggests that the carriers of DIBs with ETR are likely medium size molecules with 3 - 6 heavy atoms unless the radiative temperature is much higher.
We present the first results of a dedicated search for Diffuse Interstellar Bands that have profiles with FWHM > 6 Å. Broad DIBs have been noticed in past surveys using averages of multiple sight lines (e.g. Jenniskens & Désert, 1994), but careful detection, measurement, and cataloguing for individual sight lines has not been done since the pioneering work of Herbig (1995). We have initiated an observing campaign using the Apache Point Observatory in order to obtain low-resolution spectra to search for such broad DIBs and monitor their behaviour from star to star. A first sample of 21 stars with 0.3 < E(B-V) < 3.3 mag, along with 15 matched low-reddening stars, were observed with the APO/DIS B400 (R ~ 450) and R300 (R ~ 1000) gratings to obtain spectra having S/N > 500.
Anomalously broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 5780.5, 5797.1, 6196.0, and 6613.6 Å are found in absorption along the line of sight to Herschel 36, an O star system next to the bright Hourglass nebula of the Hii region Messier 8. Excited lines of CH and CH+ are seen as well. We show that the region is very compact and itemize other anomalies of the gas. An infrared-bright star within 400 AU is noted. The combination of these effects produces anomalous DIBs, interpreted by Oka et al. (2013, see also this volume) as being caused predominantly by infrared pumping of rotational levels of relatively small molecules.
In 2008 January the 24th Chinese expedition team successfully deployed the Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) to Dome A, the highest point on the Antarctic plateau. CSTAR consists of four 14.5cm optical telescopes, each with a different filter (g, r, i and open) and has a 4.5°×4.5° field of view (FOV). Based on the CSTAR data, initial statistics of astronomical observational site quality and light curves of variable objects were obtained. To reach higher photometric quality, we are continuing to work to overcome the effects of uneven cirrus cloud cirrus, optical “ghosts” and intra-pixel sensitivity. The snow surface stability is also tested for further astronomical observational instrument and for glaciology studies.
The Herschel HIFI Key Program, Galactic Observations of
Terahertz C+ (GOT C+) is a survey of
[CII] 1.9 THz emission throughout the Galaxy. Comparison of the first results of this
survey with HI and CO isotopomer emission reveals excess [CII] emission beyond that
expected from HI and CO layers alone, and is best explained as coming from a hidden layer
of H2 gas, the so-called ISM “dark gas”.
Within the Herschel key project “The Warm And Dense ISM” (WADI) we systematically observe
a number of prominent photon-dominated regions (PDRs) to measure the impact of varying UV
fields on the energy balance, the chemical and dynamical structure of heated molecular
Barium strontium titanate solidly mounted resonators were fabricated with patterned and unpatterned acoustic Bragg reflectors on a sapphire substrate. The patterned and unpatterned solidly mounted resonator devices had acoustic Bragg reflectors consisting of Pt/SiO2/Pt/SiO2. The s-parameters of both devices were measured. The results showed that the quality factor increased for the device with the patterned acoustic Bragg reflector structure. The quality factors for the devices with patterned and unpatterned acoustic Bragg reflector structures were 54 and 115 and 28 and 86, respectively at the resonant and antiresonant frequencies. This investigation shows how an unpatterened acoustic Bragg reflector can contribute to the degradation of the overall quality factor of the device.
PLATO is a fully-robotic observatory designed for operation in
Antarctica. It generates its own electricity (about 1 kW), heat
(sufficient to keep two 10-foot shipping containers comfortably above
0°C when the outside temperature is at -70°C), and
connects to the internet using the Iridium satellite system (providing
~30 MB/day of data transfer). Following a successful first year of
operation at Dome A during 2008, PLATO was upgraded with
new instruments for 2009.
In January 2005, members of a Chinese expedition team were the first
humans to visit Dome A on the Antarctic plateau, a site
predicted to be one of the very best astronomical sites on earth. In 2006, the Chinese Center for Antarctic Astronomy (CCAA) was founded
to promote the development of astronomy in Antarctica, especially at
Dome A. CCAA has since taken part in two traverses to Dome A, organized
by the Polar Research Institute of China (PRIC), in the austral
summers of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. These traverses resulted in the
installation of many site-testing and science instruments, supported
by the PLATO observatory. The Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR)
has produced excellent results from Dome A. Our future plans include further site-testing work, and the following
full-scale science instruments: three 0.5-m Antarctic Schmidt
Telescopes (AST3), and a proposed 4-m telescope for wide-field
infrared high spatial-resolution surveys. The first AST3 telescope is
under construction and is scheduled for installation in 2011.
PLATO is a 6 tonne completely self-contained robotic observatory that provides its own heat, electricity, and satellite communications. It was deployed to Dome A in Antarctica in January 2008 by the Chinese expedition team, and is now in its second year of operation. PLATO is operating four 14.5cm optical telescopes with 1k × 1k CCDs, a wide-field sky camera with a 2k × 2k CCD and Sloan g, r, i filters, a fibre-fed spectrograph to measure the UV to near-IR sky spectrum, a 0.2m terahertz telescope, two sonic radars giving 1m resolution data on the boundary layer to a height of 180m, a 15m tower, meteorological sensors, and 8 web cameras. Beginning in 2010/11 PLATO will be upgraded to support a Multi Aperture Scintillation Sensor and three AST3 0.5m schmidt telescopes, with 10k × 10 CCDs and 100TB/annum data requirements.
A 0·50 m long compact-toroid transport experiment (CTTX) has been studied with a number of diagnostics, including Thomson scattering, to determine local plasma properties and gradients indicative of transport processes. The CTTX bias and main field strengths were –0·09 and 0·35 T. Compact toroid formation and lifetime were studied at static fill pressures of 20, 100 and 150 mTorr deuterium, between 3 and 30μs after firing of the main bank. Thomson-scattering diagnosis was carried out using a Q-switched Nd: glass laser operated at both fundamental (1053 nm) and second-harmonic wavelengths (527 nm). For each pressure, scattering tests were conducted at radii r of 0·1, 1·0, 1·85 and 2·60 cm and axial positions z of 6·7, 13·0 and 19·0 cm (1054 nm); supplementary data were obtained at r = 0·1, 1·35 and 2·10 cm at z = 6·7 cm (527 nm). Electron densities and temperatures were in the ranges 1021–1022 m-3 and 2–20 eV. Thomson-scattering results are compared with diamagnetic loop, inter-ferometry, luminosity and piezoelectric pressure-probe data. Axial behaviour of the formation CT plasma varies significantly with initial fill pressure: continuous axial contraction occurs at ISOmTorr; whereas the 20 mTorr plasma appears first to contract then expand. Particle loss times are found to decrease from 70 μs at 20 mTorr to 24 μs at 100 mTorr and 12 μs at 150 mTorr. Energy decay times are 6, 7 and 5 μs for 20, 100 and 150 mTorr respectively. Flux-decay times are approximately 20 μs for 20 mTorr, 12 μs for 100 mTorr and 20 μs for 150 mTorr fill pressure. These values are two to four times longer than would be expected from theory using classical transport. In order to explain the sustained magnetic flux, the role of electric fields within the compact toroid is considered.
Dome A, the summit of the Antarctic plateau, is expected to have even
better atmospheric conditions for ground-based astronomy than Dome C.
Instruments to evaluate and exploit Dome A's astronomical potential
must operate within logistical constraints, which are currently
very stringent. Instrumentation now at Dome A exemplifies the
techniques and solutions required by this environment. Future
instrumentation and infrastructure will allow the qualities of the site
to be exploited much more fully.
Observations using the HIFI and PACS instruments aboard the Herschel
satellite provide a unique way to study the chemical inventory,
the dynamics, and the energy balance in dense interstellar clouds heated by
UV radiation. We propose a comprehensive observing program to reveal
the details of the interaction of massive young stars with their
parental molecular clouds.
We conducted a nested case-control study to determine potential risk factors for developing encephalitis from West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Retrospective medical chart reviews were completed for 172 confirmed WNV cases hospitalized in Houston between 2002 and 2004. Of these cases, 113 had encephalitis, including 17 deaths, 47 had meningitis, and 12 were fever cases; 67% were male. Homeless patients were more likely to be hospitalized from WNV compared to the general population. A multiple logistic regression model identified age [odds ratio (OR) 1·1, P<0·001], history of hypertension, including those cases taking hypertension-inducing drugs (OR 2·9, P=0·012), and history of cardiovascular disease (OR 3·5, P=0·061) as independent risk factors for developing encephalitis from WNV infection. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity (being black) (OR 12·0, P<0·001), chronic renal disease (OR 10·6, P<0·001), hepatitis C virus (OR 23·1, P=0·0013), and immunosuppression (OR 3·9, P=0·033) were identified as risk factors for death from WNV infection.
There has recently been increased interest in the use of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)-based Bayesian methods for estimating genetic maps. The advantage of these methods is that they can deal accurately with missing data and genotyping errors. Here we present an extension of the previous methods that makes the Bayesian method applicable to large data sets. We present an extensive simulation study examining the statistical properties of the method and comparing it with the likelihood method implemented in Mapmaker. We show that the Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) estimator of the genetic distances, corresponding to the maximum likelihood estimator, performs better than estimators based on the posterior expectation. We also show that while the performance is similar between Mapmaker and the MCMC-based method in the absence of genotyping errors, the MCMC-based method has a distinct advantage in the presence of genotyping errors. A similar advantage of the Bayesian method was not observed for missing data. We also re-analyse a recently published set of data from the eggplant and show that the use of the MCMC-based method leads to smaller estimates of genetic distances.
Field experiments were conducted to compare large crabgrass control by clethodim or sethoxydim applied alone and with selected fungicides registered for use in peanut. Fluazinam, propiconazole plus trifloxystrobin, or tebuconazole did not affect efficacy of clethodim or sethoxydim. Azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, and pyraclostrobin reduced efficacy of clethodim and sethoxydim in some experiments. Increasing the herbicide rate increased large crabgrass control regardless of the addition of chlorothalonil. In laboratory experiments, 14C absorption was less when 14C-clethodim or 14C-sethoxydim was applied with chlorothalonil. Pyraclostrobin and tebuconazole did not affect absorption of 14C-clethodim or 14C-sethoxydim.