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We aimed to verify the effectiveness of real-time reverse transcription (rRT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting cases of modified measles (M-Me) and for predicting super-spreader candidates through the experience of a measles outbreak dominated by M-Me in Yamagata, Japan, during March–April 2017. We applied rRT-PCR to specimens from 35 cases of M-Me, nine cases of typical measles (T-Me) and nine cases of prodromal stage of T-Me (P-Me). From rRT-PCR among the M-Me cases, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) showed the highest positive rate (80.0%), followed by throat swab (48.6%), urine (33.3%) and serum (3.1%). The negative result of PBMC in M-Me cases was recovered by the result of a throat swab. In specimens of PBMC, throat swab and urine, M-Me group showed the significantly higher cycle of threshold (i.e., lower viral load) in the rRT-PCR than T-Me and P-Me groups, respectively. Furthermore, three super-spreaders in T-Me or P-Me showed an extremely low cycle of threshold in their throat swab specimens. rRT-PCR using PBMC and throat swab might be helpful for clinical management and measles control by certain detection of M-Me cases and by predicting super-spreading events resulting from measles cases with the high viral load.
Underwater endoscopic ear surgery does not require suction and so protects the inner ear from unexpected aeration that may damage its function in the treatment of labyrinthine fistula. A method of underwater endoscopic ear surgery is proposed for the treatment of superior canal dehiscence.
Underwater endoscopic ear surgery was performed for plugging of the superior semicircular canal through the transmastoid approach. Saline solution was infused into the mastoid cavity through an Endo-Scrub Lens Cleaning Sheath. The tip of the inserted endoscope was filled completely with saline water.
Using this underwater endoscopic view, the canal was clearly dissected to expose the semicircular canal membranous labyrinth and dehiscence area. No particular complication occurred during the surgical procedure.
The underwater endoscopic ear surgery technique for plugging in superior canal dehiscence secures an excellent visual field and protects the inner ear from unexpected aeration.
The management of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma has not been standardised to date. This study reviewed the clinical course, management and survival outcomes of patients with extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma in the head and neck region.
Nine patients with extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma in the head and neck were included in this study.
Five patients received radical surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or both. Two other patients were treated with chemotherapy consisting of CPT11 plus cisplatin or CPT11 plus cisplatin plus VP-16 three times. Two other patients received chemoradiotherapy consisting of S-1 or CPT11 plus cisplatin. The median overall survival was 14.5 months, with a three-year survival rate of 23.7 per cent.
The prognosis of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma is generally poor. Further prospective multicentre studies are required for better understanding of disease entities and response to treatment modalities.
Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma is a rare minor salivary gland neoplasm. The treatment of choice is surgical resection with or without post-operative radiotherapy. This tumour often demonstrates a good prognosis.
We report a case of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma arising in the nasopharynx. A 27-year-old female presented with progressive hearing disturbance and tinnitus. On examination, an expansile mass was observed in her nasopharynx. Biopsy was performed and the pathology results returned as clear cell carcinoma.
Results and conclusion:
Surgical resection was performed trans-orally accompanied by trans-palatal approach. She has no recurrence during more than two years of follow up.
We studied the electrical properties of thermally treated V2O5-CuO-Fe2O3-P2O5 (vanadate) glasses under reducing high-vacuum conditions. The glasses were prepared by using a melt-quenching method and then applied on Al2O3 substrates as ∼40μm-thick films. The glass films were then heat treated at 375−550°C under a vacuum of 10−6 Pa. Powder X-ray diffraction showed the formation of complex oxides of both MxV2O5 (M = Cu, Fe; x = 0.12−1.3) and vanadium oxides (VOx; x = 1.5−2.5). The resistivity of the glass film crystallized at 550°C measured at 50°C and 300°C were 1.8 × 100 Ωcm and 2.8 × 10−1 Ωcm, respectively, which was 10 times lower than that of the film crystallized in air. The Seebeck coefficient was −132 μV/K at 50°C and −130 μV/K at 300°C. These results show that the vanadate glasses crystallized under the appropriate condition become potential candidate materials for semiconductor and thermoelectric application.
We demonstrated high-resolution element-specific diffraction microscopy using a hard X-ray beam focused by Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors. Coherent diffraction patterns of an Au/Ag nanoparticle were measured at incident X-ray energies around the Au LIII absorption edge. By calculating the difference between the intensities of reconstructed images obtained at different energies, an image of the Au element could be derived. From the difference image, it was suggested that the replacement reaction progresses from the corners of Ag cubic particle.
In order to measure precisely the polarization of Crab Nebula and Cygnus X-1, we have been developing a hard X-ray polarimeter for balloon-borne experiments called PHENEX (Polarimetry of High ENErgy X-rays). It consists of several detectors called unit counters. The unit counter has a detection efficiency of 20% and a modulation factor of 53% at 80 keV. Up to now, we have finished the installation of eight unit counters to the polarimeter, that will be launched in Spring 2009 to observe the Crab Nebula. If the polarization of this source is more than 30%, the PHENEX polarimeter will be able to measure the degree and the direction of the polarization with errors less than 10% and 10°, respectively.
X-ray astronomy has been much advanced by three observations: spectroscopy, timing, and imaging. Also in the hard X-ray region, these three observations will be realized by ASTRO-H and XEUS. However, the observation of the polarization is at the moment left out in spite of its potential usefulness. This is because of the difficulty of developing polarimeters with high sensitivity. Since the origin of the polarization is often due to nonthermal radiation processes such as synchrotron radiation, observations in the hard X-ray region are possibly more important than those in the soft X-ray region: it is expected that the degree of polarization in the hard X-ray region would be higher than that at lower energies.
Upon direct inspection of surgically removed ossicles from the ears of patients with long-term post-mastoidectomy cavity problems, the extent of malleus destruction often appears greater in patients with a longer duration of cavity problems, whereas the extent of incus destruction does not appear to correlate with the duration of cavity problems. This study aimed to investigate this impression.
Materials and methods:
As a result of total middle-ear reconstruction, 41 ossicles (21 malleus and 20 incus bones) were obtained from 31 patients with post-mastoidectomy cavity problems. The ossicles were examined histopathologically, and the proportion of lamellar bone area to total bone area (expressed as percentage lamellar bone) was measured. We also calculated the inter-operation time, i.e. the time period between the previous mastoidectomy and the recent total middle-ear reconstruction; this parameter was used as an approximate measure of the duration of the patient's cavity problem. Correlations between percentage lamellar bone and inter-operation time were calculated for the two ossicles.
The range of inter-operation times was seven to 65 years. We observed a correlation between percentage lamellar bone and inter-operation time for malleus bones (r = −0.512, p < 0.05), but not for incus bones.
These results were in agreement with our pre-study impressions.
In  and  we demonstrated how Pascal-like triangles arose from the probabilities associated with the various outcomes of a particular game (see Definition 1 below). It was also shown that they could be considered as generalisations of Pascal's triangle. In this article we show how Fibonacci-like sequences arise from our Pascal-like triangles, and demonstrate the existence of simple relationships between these Fibonacci-like sequences and the Fibonacci sequence itself. In addition we will investigate a generalisation of the binomial coefficients that appears when considering an extended version of the game. We start by describing this game.
Histological intestinal villus alterations were studied in piglets fed a raw pigeon pea meal (PM) diet including a powder mixture of amorphous charcoal carbon and wood vinegar compound solution (CWVC). Twenty-eight male castrated piglets were divided into seven dietary groups of four piglets each. The control group was fed raw PM supplemented to the basal diet (178 g/kg crude protein, 4.23 kcal/g gross energy) at 0 g/kg (CONT), 200 g/kg (PM200) and 400 g/kg (PM400). The treatment groups were fed CWVC in both PM200 and PM400 diet groups at levels of 10 g/kg and 30 g/kg (PM200 + CWVC10, PM200 + CWVC30, PM400 + CWVC10 and PM400 + CWVC30). With increasing dietary PM levels, daily feed intake tended to increase. In contrast, daily body-weight gain tended to decrease, significantly in the PM400 group (P < 0.05), resulting in a significant decrease of feed efficiency in PM groups (P < 0.05). Body-weight gain and feed efficiency were higher in the CWVC groups compared with the PM groups. The duodenum and ileum were longer (P < 0.05) in the PM400 group than in CONT, but were similar to CONT in CWVC groups. The liver was heavier (P < 0.05), whereas the weights of the heart, kidney and stomach were decreased in the CWVC groups than in other groups. Most values for the intestinal villus height, cell area and cell mitosis number were lower in PM groups than those in CONT (P < 0.05) for each intestinal segment; however, these values were higher in CWVC groups than in PM groups (P < 0.05). The epithelial cells on the duodenal villus surface of the PM200 group showed cell morphology almost similar to CONT. However, the PM400 group had a smooth villus surface due to the presence of flat cells. The epithelial cells of the CWVC groups were protuberated, resulting in a much rougher surface than CONT. The current growth performance and histological intestinal alterations in piglets fed PM and PM + CWVC diets demonstrate that the intestinal features might be atrophied by feeding PM, resulting in decreased growth performance. CWVC might prevent the harmful effects of PM dietary toxins on intestinal function, resulting in a normal growth performance.
Nano-JASMINE is a nano-size astrometry satellite that will carry out astrometry measurements of nearby bright stars for more than one year. This will enable us to detect annual parallaxes of stars within 300 pc from the Sun. We expect the satellite to be launched as a piggy-back system as early as in 2009 into a Sun synchronized orbit at the altitude between 500 and 800 km. Being equipped with a beam combiner, the satellite has a capability to observe two different fields simultaneously and will be able to carry out HIPPARCOS-type observations along great circles. A 5 cm all aluminum made reflecting telescope with a aluminum beam combiner is developed. Using the on-board CCD controller, experiments with a real star have been executed. A communication band width is insufficient to transfer all imaging data, hence, we developed an onboard data processing system that extracts stellar image data from vast amount of imaging data. A newly developed 2K × 1K fully-depleted CCD will be used for the mission. It will work in the time delayed integration(TDI) mode. The bus system has been designed with special consideration of the following two points. Those are the thermal stabilization of the telescope and the accuracy of the altitude control. The former is essential to achieve high astrometric accuracies, on the order of 1 mas. Therefore relative angle of the beam combiner must be stable within 1 mas. A 3-axes control of the satellite will be realized by using fiber gyro and triaxial reaction wheel system and careful treatment of various disturbing forces.
We are preparing a reflecting telescope for Nano-JASMINE, a very small satellite for global space astrometry of milli-arcsecond accuracy. The telescope has a 5-cm diameter primary mirror and a beam-combiner in front of it. It occupies only about 12x12x17cm and is entirely made out of aluminum alloy. The telescope and its surrounding structures are carefully designed for thermal stability of the optics, especially to control changes in the relative angle of the beam-combiner.
JASMINE is the acronym of the Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for INfrared (z-band: 0.9 micron) Exploration, and is planned to be launched around 2017. The main objective of JASMINE is to study the fundamental structure and evolution of the Milky Way bulge components. In order to accomplish these objectives, JASMINE will measure trigonometric parallaxes, positions and proper motions of about ten million stars in the Galactic bulge with a precision of 10 microarcsec at z = 14mag.
The primary mirror for the telescope has a diameter of 75cm with a focal length of 22.5m. The back-illuminated CCD is fabricated on a 300 micron thick substrate which is fully depleted. These thick devices have extended near infrared response. The size of the detector for z-band is 3cm×3cm with 2048×2048 pixels. The size of the field of view is about 0.6deg×0.6deg by using 64 detectors on the focal plane. The telescope is designed to have only one field of view, which is different from the designs of other astrometric satellites. JASMINE will observe overlapping fields without gaps to survey a total area of about 20deg×10 deg around the Galactic bulge. Accordingly we make a “large frame” of 20deg×10 deg by linking the small frames using stars in overlapping regions. JASMINE will observe the Galactic bulge repeatedly during the mission life of about 5 years.
We have developped a software of Star-Image-Extractor (SIE) which works as the on-board real-time image processor. It detects and extracts only the object data from raw image data. SIE has two functions: reducing image data and providing data for the satellite's high accuracy attitude control system.
We introduce a Japanese space astrometry project which is called JASMINE. JASMINE (Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for INfrared Exploration) will measure distances and tangential motions of stars in the Galactic bulge with yet unprecedented precision. JASMINE will operate in z-band whose central wavelength is 0.9 micron. It will measure parallaxes, positions with accuracy of about 10 micro-arcsec and proper motions with accuracy of about 10 micro- arcsec/year for the stars brighter than z=14 mag. The number of stars observed by JASMINE with high accuracy of parallaxes in the Galactic bulge is much larger than that observed in other space astrometry projects operating in optical bands. With the completely new “map of the Galactic bulge” including motions of bulge stars, we expect that many new exciting scientific results will be obtained in studies of the Galactic bulge. One of them is the construction of the dynamical structure of the Galactic bulge. Kinematics and distance data given by JASMINE are the closest approach to a view of the exact dynamical structure of the Galactic bulge.
Presently, JASMINE is in a development phase, with a target launch date around 2016. We comment on the outline of JASMINE mission, scientific targets and a preliminary design of JASMINE in this paper.
In order to optimize low electrical resistivity compositions of Pd-based thin film metallic glass (TFMG), Combinatorial arc plasma deposition (CAPD) was employed. A Pd-based continuous compositionally-graded thin film was deposited using CAPD in the experiments. To deposit the composition-grade of the Pd-rich thin film, the number of shots and the plasma strength were controlled. The deposited thin film was separated into 1,089 samples for measurements. The thickness, composition, phase and relative resistivity of these samples were measured respectively. And three amorphous CAPD samples exhibiting low relative resistivity were selected. To determine whether these were TFMG compositions, their compositions were reproduced on sputter-deposited samples and their Tg and Tx were measured. It was found that the sample of Pd81Cu5Si14 at.% showed the lowest absolute resistivity (60 μΩ·cm) and the largest temperature range of supercooled liquid region (SCLR) i.e., 60 K among all samples. The resistivity was 19% lower than conventional Pd-based TFMG and SCLR was two and half times as large. The tensile strength was higher than the conventional TFMG and the Young's modulus was lower than the conventional one.
This paper presents the characteristics of Mo-based (Mo-Zr based) amorphous alloys exhibiting a high crystallization temperature. In order to investigate the alloy composition showing an amorphous state in the Mo-Zr-X (X=Si and Al) alloy system, thin film libraries were prepared at first by combinatorial arc plasma deposition (CAPD). The composition region corresponding to the amorphous state was identified in the libraries with X-ray diffraction. On the basis of the alloy composition and phase distribution of the thin film libraries, additional amorphous Mo-Zr-Si and Mo-Zr-Al thin films were prepared by a carousel sputtering system. The crystallization temperature Tc of the amorphous Mo50Zr(50-x)Six thin films exceeded 1073 K. However, the Mo-Zr-Si thin films were so brittle that they could not be subjected to tensile testing. In the Mo-Zr-Al thin films, Tc of the Mo-rich MoxZr(90-x)Al10 and MoxZr(76-x)Al24 thin films exceeded 973 K. Although the toughness of Mo-based amorphous alloy thin films could be improved slightly by adding Al, the amorphous Mo-Zr-Al thin films were also brittle.
Combinatorial arc plasma deposition (CAPD) method was used to search for new compositions of thin film amorphous alloys. A cathodic arc plasma gun (APG) was adopted as the deposition source for CAPD. The CAPD setup has three APGs radiating out from the center of a substrate. The APGs shoot pulse-like plasma shots one by one at a specific time interval. The plasma from each APG cathode is guided onto a specific area on a substrate by a magnetic field. Each such area overlaps the adjacent ones. Thus, a compositionally-graded thin film is deposited in the overlap area because of mixing of each deposited thin film from each APG that has a thickness grade. The deposited thin film is separated into 1,089 samples (the size of each is 1×1 mm2) using a grid on the substrate. The samples together are referred to as the thin film library. To demonstrate the capability of CAPD, two thin film libraries were deposited in this study. One is a thin film library of a PdCuSi alloy system, and the other is a MoZrPd system. The compositions and crystallinity of the samples were evaluated on the substrate using EDS and IP-XRD respectively. Analysis of the samples showed a graded composition, and some of the samples were shown to be amorphous in both libraries.
Variability of the light curves of the short-period eclipsing binary system GR Tau (, almost-contact binary) is studied. It is found that GR Tau experienced both the state which is characterized by asymmetric light curves and the state characterized by symmetrical light curves.