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This study aimed to clarify the association between both hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and glucose transporter type-1 expression and survival outcome in advanced pharyngeal cancer without human papillomavirus infection.
Twenty-five oropharyngeal and 55 hypopharyngeal cancer patients without human papillomavirus infection were enrolled. All patients had stage III–IV lesions and underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy or surgery. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and glucose transporter type-1 expression were investigated in primary lesions by immunohistochemistry.
There were 41 and 39 cases with low and high hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression, and 28 and 52 cases with low and high glucose transporter type-1 expression, respectively. There was no significant correlation between hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and glucose transporter type-1 expression. In univariate analysis, nodal metastasis, clinical stage and high hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression, but not glucose transporter type-1 expression, predicted significantly worse prognosis. In multivariate analysis, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α overexpression was significantly correlated with poor overall survival, disease-specific survival and recurrence-free survival.
High hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression was an independent risk factor for poor prognosis for advanced human papillomavirus-unrelated pharyngeal cancer.
The effects of iron deficiency on the prognosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between serum iron levels and idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss prognosis and its usefulness as an independent prognostic marker for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
The audiological and haematological data, including hearing recovery and serum iron levels, of 103 patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss evaluated between 2015 and 2018 were retrospectively analysed.
The overall complete recovery rate was 16.5 per cent. Initial higher hearing threshold was associated with poor idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss prognosis. Serum iron levels were significantly higher in the complete recovery group than in the non-complete recovery group (p < 0.05).
The possibility of complete recovery from idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss was significantly lower with lower serum iron levels, suggesting that the serum iron level might be a novel prognostic marker for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
The risk for developing and preserving symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN) in children seems to be multifactorial: individual, familial, socio-cultural, and biological factors interact within the developmental framework. A disruption of attachment processes with the mother in an early stage of child development has been proposed as a contributing factor; however, the evidence is controversial.
To address the research question of how childhood AN patients recognize disorder-specific provocative factors such as body type, high-calorie food, and attachment between mother and child.
The aim of this study was to investigate the prefrontal activation in childhood AN patients when imaging those symptom-provocative factors.
The prefrontal activations during each task, in terms of blood volume changes, were measured by near infrared spectroscopy. Twelve females with childhood AN (mean age, 14.4 years old) and 13 age-matched healthy female controls participated in this study.
Both groups showed increased prefrontal blood volume when viewing images of each symptom-provocative factor. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in the prefrontal blood volume increases between the control group and the childhood AN group when viewing images of slender and obese body types and high-calorie food. On the other hand, images of mother-child attachment resulted in significantly greater increases in prefrontal blood volume in the childhood AN group than in the control group.
These results indicated that prefrontal activation in AN might be associated with imaging attachment between mother and child, but not associated with imaging body type or high-calorie food.
There are a number of clinical scores to measure cognitive impairment and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) for dementia patients.
Previous BPSD scores are well established, but they usually take long time. Furthermore they were made almost 20 years ago, and therefore may not even fit a current BPSD because affective expressions may change depending on modern society change.
To make a new and simple score which fits modern change of BPSD.
Based on BPSD inquiry from 129 caregivers in local area (patients 81.6 ± 9.9 years old and female 70.5%), a new and simple BPSD score was created, and compared to standard BPSD score NPI (neuropsychiatry inventory). Time was measured to complete this new BPSD score (ABS, Abe's BPSD score) and NPI. This ABS was examined before and after a choline esterase inhibitor treatment.
We gave final scores to each BPSD items with such temporal frequencies taken into account ranging 0-9, and finalized a new BPSD score of score 0-44 between no BPSD to full BPSD. Average time to complete both NPI and ABS was 308.9 ± 86.3 sec and 46.5 ± 16.2 sec (**p< 0.01), respectively. Galantamine showed an improvement of average ABS with - 2.3 ± 1.0 (*p< 0.05) from original score of 6.1 ± 6.6 after 3 month of the treatment.
These data suggest that this new and simple BPSD score (ABS) may be beneficial to quickly evaluate BPSD before and after a treatment of dementia patients.
Optical properties of infrared-bright (IR-bright) dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are reported. DOGs are faint in optical but very bright in mid-IR, which are powered by active star formation (SF) or active galactic nucleus (AGN), or both. The DOGs is a candidate population that are evolving from a gas-rich merger to a quasar. By combining three catalogs of optical (Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam), near-IR (VIKING), and mid-IR (ALLWISE), we have discovered 571 IR-bright DOGs. Using their spectral energy distributions, we classified the selected DOGs into the SF-dominated DOGs and the AGN-dominated DOGs. We found that the SF-dominated DOGs show a redder optical color than the AGN-dominated DOGs. Interestingly, some DOGs shows extremely blue color in optical (blue-excess DOGs: bluDOGs). A possible origin for this blue excess is either the leaked AGN light or stellar UV light from nuclear starbursts. The BluDOGs may be in the transition phase from obscured AGNs to unobscured AGNs.
Metal Organic Decomposition (MOD)-made BaTiO3 (BT) thin films were prepared for Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) under various annealing conditions and investigated for improving the properties of bipolar-type resistive switching, focusing on the relation between oxygen vacancies and the behavior of resistive hysteresis. BT thin films with both pre- and final- annealing in nitrogen showed the resistive hysteresis of bipolar-type switching with current ON/OFF ratios of 2 orders of magnitude for both bias polarities. Finally they showed the endurance property with the 106 switching cycles. It was suggested that oxygen vacancies near the oxide surface (both interfaces at metal electrode/oxide and between layer-by-layered oxide layers) are increased by N2 annealing and enhanced the interface-type resistive switching. Pre-annealing in N2 was also found to be very effective to improve endurance properties, implying that not only the electrode/oxide interface but also the middle part of the film would contribute the interface-type mechanism.
We developed a new GaN on SiC growth method by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) using of a single 2-dimension-growth step. Prior to epitaxy, to inhibit pre-reaction of Si-face SiC substrate with TMGa and NH3, TMAl was flowed without NH3. 1.5 μm of undoped crack-free GaN was grown on 6H-SiC (Si-face). Without buffer layer, the vertical resistance of GaN/SiC structure was found to be around 82.1Ω as determined by I-V characteristic. Further reduction in vertical resistance is expected by growth of n-GaN (1.5μm)/SiC structure (300μm). We also expect a SiC-based GaN heterostructure vertical FET will achieve high power and high switching speed performance.
A new nano-fabrication process, utilizing protein supramolecules, biomineralization, and nano-etching was proposed, which was named Bio Nano Process (BNP). The main processes of the BNP include the nanoparticle (NP) or nanowire (NW) synthesis utilizing bio-template (biomineralization) and nanostructure fabrication utilizing self-organization of protein supramolecules. Proteins are so designed to produce the final structures. The space where nano functional structures are fabricated is named an “Active Bio-field”. It was proven that the process has vast potential to be applied to a wide range of quantum effect base nano-devices and thin film devices.
Hydrogen passivation was applied to the initial epitaxial growth of n-type β-FeSi2 thin films on p-type Si(111) substrates by facing-targets direct-current sputtering (FTDCS) in order to reduced the formation of interface states and terminate dangling bonds in the β-FeSi2 films, and the passivation effects were studied on basis of the electrical evaluation results of the formed n-type β-FeSi2/p-type Si heterojunction photodiodes. The initial growth was made at different gas inflow H2/Ar ratios ranging from 0 to 0.2. The photodetection performance of the photodiode fabricated at the ratio of 0.2 was markedly improved as compared to those of the other samples. The quantum efficiency and detectivity were 2.08 % and 1.75 × 1010 cm√Hz/W, respectively. The sample exhibited the minimum junction capacitance density of 9.2 nF/cm2. The enhanced photodetective performance should be mainly because dangling bonds that act as trap centers for photocarriers are effectively inactivated by the passivation.
A sudden break-down of a heat-exchanger in vinyl chloride plant resulted in that 141 °C, 23% concentration of hydrochloric acid spouted out over the workers around it. Eight workers suffered and Ichihara City Fire Department was deployed in response to the call 3 minutes after the onset of the incident, 17 vehicles including 5 fire engines, 6 ambulances, and two helicopters. Finally three severely (> 80% of TBSA) burned, two moderately (20–80%) burned, and three slightly (< 20%) burned victims were identified and triaged. One severely burned was transferred at first to the closest tertiary care hospital (TUCMC) which existed within 2.5 km distance by an ambulance and other two and one moderately burned were transferred by helicopters to the neighboring tertiary care hospitals. Another moderately burned one was sent to TUCMC by an ambulance about 30 minutes later than the first one. Three slightly burned victims were sent to a local hospital and treated as an outpatient. This casualty mission was ended by 120 minutes after the call. Two among the three severely burned patients lost their lives but another severe one and two moderately burned were survived. Conclusions: With these considerations, the management of this multiple burn casualty was successful, partly because of small number of the victims and of that the incident occurred in a weekday morning.
The preceding chapter introduced dietary analysis and discussed physical aspects of potential foods as they might influence feeding behaviour. Here, we deal with chemical aspects of potential foods. From the outset though, we should point out that attempts to explain the influence of chemical factors on primate nutrition, and the dietary factors that promote or deter the uptake of nutrients, are limited by our understanding of how the primate gut operates. It is unclear what the optimal dietary requirements are even for humans. Gut research is developing on both theoretical (see, for example, Jumars, 2000) and practical levels (Dominy et al., 2004), but it is important to point out that the effective rate of uptake is not simply a question of enzymatic action. The quantity of plant fibre that a primate ingests has a major influence on the rate of passage of food through the gut and thus digestibility (Lambert, 2002). Variable gut populations of microorganisms and parasites also play a large positive or negative role, particularly in relation to specializations in the stomach or large intestine. The situation is even less clear when it comes to chemical compounds that act as feeding deterrents, toxins or anti-nutritional factors. These have largely been bred or processed out of the agricultural products on which humans feed, so they have received relatively little attention in food science.
In March 1989 a large outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred simultaneously among schoolchildren and teachers at nine elementary schools in Toyota City, Japan. Illness was observed in 3236 (41·5%) of 7801 schoolchildren and 117 (39·4%) of 297 teachers. The main clinical symptoms were diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea and abdominal pain. Gastroenteritis was significantly associated with the consumption of school lunch served by one particular lunch preparation centre. One food handler at the centre suffered from gastroenteritis during the outbreak.Small round structured virus (SRSV) was detected in 4 of 8 stool specimens from sick persons. The school lunch contaminated by the infected food handler is the most probable source of this outbreak due to SRSV.
The inhibitory influence of cyanuric acid on the virucidal effect of chlorine was studied. The time required for 99·9% inactivation of ten enteroviruses and two adenoviruses by 0·5 mg/l free available chlorine at pH 7·0 and 25○C was prolonged approximately 4·8–28·8 times by the addition of 30 mg/l cyanuric acid. Comparative inactivation of poliovirus 1 by free available chlorine with or without cyanuric acid revealed the following. The inactivation rate by 1·5 mg/l free available chlorine with 30 mg/l cyanuric acid or by 0·5 mg/l free available chlorine with 1 mg/1 cyanuric acid was slower than by 0·5 mg/1 free available chlorine alone. Temperature and pH did not affect the inhibitory influence of cyanuric acid on the disinfectant action of chlorine. In the swimming-pool and tap water, cyanuric acid delayed the virucidal effect of chlorine as much as in the ‚clean’ condition of chlorine-buffered distilled water. The available chlorine value should be increased to 1·5 mg/l when cyanuric acid is used in swimming-pool water.
We studied, for two years, the prevalence of indigenous human enteric viruses in wild oysters gathered each month from the bottom of Mikawa Bay, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Viruses were detected periodically in 9 out of 54 oyster pools prepared by the acid or polyethylene glycol precipitation method although all these 9 pools met current national bacteriological safety standards. Since most of the serotypes of the enteric viruses detected in the oysters were identical with those of viruses isolated from sick children living in the area, it is suggested that contamination of enteric viruses in the oysters would depend on the prevalence of enteric viral infections in the local inhabitants.
Magnetic thin films of Co80Cr16Ta4 were sputtered onto identical CrMo seed-layers at –200 V bias and 3 different substrate temperatures (150, 200, and 250 °C). Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) was performed to analyze Cr levels at the grain boundaries as well as inside the grains. These quantitative Cr measurements were used to estimate the local values of magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Ku) and, together with grain size distributions, calculate the product of Ku and the grain volume (KuV), a quantity which is a measure of thermal stability. The results show that the coercivity as well as the fraction of stable grains increased with increasing substrate temperature. The increase in the fraction of stable grains is produced by the enhancement in the Ku value due to Cr depletion of the grain interiors and the magnetic decoupling between the grains from Cr grain-boundary segregation.
Effects of the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, on the dung beetles, Caccobius jessoensis Harold, 1867 and the rare species, Copris ochus Motschulsky, 1860 and Copris acutidens Motschulsky, 1860 were studied in laboratory and field experiments in Hokkaido, Japan. Ivermectin was detected in dung from 1 to 21 or 28 days following treatment, with a peak on the first day after treatment in two pour-on administrations (500 μg kg−1), although there were considerable differences between the two peaks. In C. jessoensis, brood balls constructed by the female were not reduced in the dung of treated cattle except for seven days after treatment in experiment 2. Also, there was no significant difference in the mean weight of brood balls between dung from treated and control cattle. However, the emergence rates were significantly reduced in dung 1–3 days after treatment. In the field study, brood balls constructed by C. jessoensis were more abundant in dung from treated cattle in experiment 1, but adult emergence was significantly reduced at one and seven days after treatments. Adult mortality of C. ochus Motschulsky at 90 days after the beginning of rearing was 11.1% in dung from control cattle with 22 brood balls constructed, whereas it was 84% in dung from treated cattle with no brood balls and/or ovipositioning. Also, in C. acutidens Motschulsky, adult mortality at 90 days after the beginning of rearing was 3.6% in dung from control cattle with 13 brood balls constructed, whereas it was 94.1% in dung from treated cattle with no brood balls or ovipositioning. The environmental risk in the use of ivermectin during breeding period of dung beetles in pasture is discussed.
We present an overview of recent astrometric results with VERA. Since 2004, we have been conducting astrometry of tens of Galactic maser sources with VERA, and recently obtained trigonometric parallaxes for several sources, with distances ranging from 180 pc to 5.3 kpc. In this paper, we briefly summarize the results for Galactic star-forming regions, including S269, Orion-KL, NGC 1333, ρ-oph, NGC 281 and others.
Background and objective: The best place for the electrode of transcutaneous measurement of oxygen tension (tcPO2) and carbon dioxide tension (tcPCO2) during general anaesthesia was investigated in three different locations. Methods: Fifteen patients for major abdominal surgery in the supine position were studied. The electrode of the TCM4™ (Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark) was put on the chest, upper arm or forearm. TcPO2, tcPCO2, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (etCO2), percutaneous oxygen saturation (SaO2), arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 ) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) were simultaneously measured at four different etCO2 concentrations and inhaled oxygen percentages and the location of the electrode was changed to other places to repeat the same measurement. In total, 12 measurements for each patient and 60 measurements for each place were performed. Results: TcPO2 correlated better than SaO2 (R2 = 0.58) with PaO2 (R2 = 0.76), and tcPCO2 correlated well with PaCO2 (R2 = 0.76) and etCO2 (R2 = 0.74) when the electrode was put on the chest, while not on the upper arm or forearm (R2 < 0.5). However, limits of agreement were too big to use tcPO2 (bias, −67.9; limits of agreement, 16.5, −152.3) and tcPCO2 (bias, −0.47; limits of agreement, 8.7, −9.64) as surrogate measures of PaO2 and PaCO2, respectively even when the electrode was put on the chest. Conclusions: When the electrode was put on the chest, tcPO2 and tcPCO2 might be available as non-invasive monitors of oxygenation and CO2 status during general anaesthesia, while the absolute values were not interchangeable with PaO2 and PaCO2, respectively.