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Meiotic maturation of oocytes requires a variety of ATP-dependent reactions, such as germinal vesicle breakdown, spindle formation, and rearrangement of plasma membrane structure, which is required for fertilization. Mitochondria are accordingly expected be localized to subcellular sites of energy utilization. Although microtubule-dependent cellular traffic for mitochondria has been studied extensively in cultured neuronal (and some other somatic) cells, the molecular mechanism of their dynamics in mammalian oocytes at different stages of maturation remains obscure. The present work describes dynamic aspects of mitochondria in porcine oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage. After incubation of oocytes with MitoTracker Orange followed by centrifugation, mitochondria-enriched ooplasm was obtained using a glass needle and transferred into a recipient oocyte. The intracellular distribution of the fluorescent mitochondria was then observed over time using a laser scanning confocal microscopy equipped with an incubator. Kinetic analysis revealed that fluorescent mitochondria moved from central to subcortical areas of oocytes and were dispersed along plasma membranes. Such movement of mitochondria was inhibited by either cytochalasin B or cytochalasin D but not by colcemid, suggesting the involvement of microfilaments. This method of visualizing mitochondrial dynamics in live cells permits study of the pathophysiology of cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular traffic of mitochondria and associated energy metabolism during meiotic maturation of oocytes.
We observed significant reduction of thermal conductivity in semiconducting composite films of Si and molybdenum (Mo)-silicide nanocrystals (NCs). These films were synthesized by phase separation due to annealing at 700 -1000°C from sputtered amorphous Mo–Si alloy. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the NCs were grown to diameters of∼10 nm in the films by annealing at 800°C. Raman scattering spectra showed lower shift of peak positions of Si transverse optical (TO) phonon due to the confinement effect and the tensile stress. The electrical resistivity of the films was 0.17- 9 Ωm at room temperature and showed a semiconducting temperature dependence at 20-400 K. Thermal conductivity of the film was reduced to 4.4 W/mK by enhancement of phonon scattering at NC interfaces, suggesting that the composite film is promising as a high-efficiency Si-based thermoelectric material.
A super-Chandrasekhar (SC) supernova (SN) has an extremely high luminosity and a slow decline rate of the light curve in the early-phase. We present late-phase observations of the SC SN 2009dc. We find that the optical luminosity a year after maximum is much fainter than that expected from its early luminosity. We attempt to fit the analytic light curve model to the observations using Arnett's rule. The model successfully explains the light curves until 120 days. This suggests that the extremely high luminosity originates from the 56Ni decay. We suggest that the late-phase decline would be caused by dust formation. The existence of strong carbon features in early-phase spectra would support this scenario. We also find a blend of [Ca ii] and [Ni ii] in its late-phase spectrum. This indicates that the calcium is distributed in the inner layer along with nickel and iron. We conclude that the mixing may occur in the inner parts of the ejecta.
Optical and near-infrared observations of novae give us useful information for understanding the diversity of nova eruptions. Classical nova V1723 Aql was discovered by F. Kabashima and K. Nishiyama on 2010 September 11. We have conducted photometric and spectroscopic observations of V1723 Aql in both optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength regions since its discovery. The V-band decline time by 2 mag after the maximum, t2, was ~12 d. The apparent Fe II emission lines were also seen in the optical spectra. The Rc- and Ic-band light curves exhibited rapid declines (0.16 mag d−1 in Rc) 20 days after the visual maximum, while the NIR (J, H, and Ks) showed slow decline rates (~0.07 mag d−1). This rapid reddening suggests that dust particles formed during the very early phase of the expansion in V1723 Aql.
Mg-doped quaternary InAlGaN is very attractive for use as p-side layers of 300-nm band ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or laser diodes (LDs), because high hole conductivity is expected to obtain for wide bandgap (~4 eV) InAlGaN with Mg-doping. We fabricated p-n junction diode consisting of Mg-doped In0.02Al0.28Ga0.70N and Si-doped Al0.25Ga0.75N, and demonstrated intense UV emission under CW current injection at room temperature. The rising voltage in I-V curve was around 3.8 V and the breakdown voltage was as high as 10 V. Single peaked intense emission was observed at 340 nm from around InAlGaN/AlGaN p-n junction area without any deep level emission. Also we found that Ni/Au electrode directly fabricated on Mg-doped InAlGaN is useful. From these results, Mg-doped InAlGaN is considered to be very attractive for use as p-side layer of UV-LEDs or LDs.
The effect of YBCO film characteristics on the RF properties of microstrip-line (MSL) resonators using two surface resistance Rs value types of films was investigated in terms of weak links. The films were characterized in both cystallinity and microstructure. The RF properties of the resonators were measured at frequencies of about 2 GHz. It was understood that the film samples with higher Rs at 70 K, which exhibited strong c-axis orientation, both the 90 and 45- degree angle grains in plane of the films, Y211 segregation, and porous structures show large influence on RF magnetic field dependence of normalized resonant frequency-shift Δfc/fc, compared with the lower Rs type. On the other hand, the films with lower Rs at 70 K had much stronger c-axis orientation, the 90-degree angle grains, and dense structures. Consequently, it was considered that the lower Rs type films possessed fewer weak-links compared with the higher Rs type films, suggesting that the misorientation in the higher Rs films result in weak-links.
Interlayers of montmorillonite were pillared with TiO2, SiO2 -TiO2 and SiO2-Fe2O3 sols. The pillared structures were thermally stable at least up to 500°C and retained unusually large basal spacings in the range of 24–45Å and surface areas as high as 300–500 m2 /g. The TiO2 pillared clay showed Type IV adsorption isotherm for nitrogen. Although SiO2 -TiO2 and SiO2-Fe2O3 pillared clays had basal spacings much larger than that of TiO2 pillared clay, these mixed oxide pillared clays had small pores and exhibited Type I isotherm. The acidic strength distributions were determined by a titration method using n-butylamine and Hammett indicators. All of the pillared clays had large acidities, but the acidic strength decreased in the following order: TiO2 - SiO 2 » SiO2-Fe2O3 pillared clays. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) spectra of ammonia were measured and interpreted in relation to the acidity distribution. Infrared spectra of pyridine adsorbed on TiO2 pillared clay indicated that the acidity predominantly arises from Lewis acid sites.
3C-SiC layers were grown on Si(111) substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using SiH4-CH3CI-H2 gas mixture. 3C-SiC(111) heteroepitaxial layers were obtained with smooth surfaces and reduced warpage. All the epilayers were n- type, and the carrier density and Hall mobility were 2.1×1016∼2.8×1017 cm-3 and 120∼180 cm2/Vs at room temperature, respectively. Temperature dependences of the electrical properties of the self-supported 3C-SiC(111) epilayers were measured between 15 and 300 K for the first time. 3C-SiC(111) epilayers showed a similar temperature dependence of carrier density to 3C-SiC(001) heteroepitaxial layer. Hall mobility was maximum (∼360 cm2/Vs) around 100 K.
Electrical and luminescent properties of nondoped, and N-doped n-type 3C-SiC layers epitaxially grown on Si(100) by chemical vapor deposition were studied. Nondoped n-type epilayers with carrier concentration of 1×1016cm−3 and the Hall mobility of 750cm2/Vs at room temperature have the activation energy of donors, Ed=2OmeV, which is different from that of the donors in the N-doped layers. The photoluminescence spectra of nondoped layers are different from those of N-doped ones. These results suggest that the donors in the unintentionally doped n-type 3C-SiC are not due to N impurities. 45–70 % of N-donors in the N-doped epilayers are compensated.
Schottky-barrier and MOS-type field-effect transistors have been fabricated from 3C-SiC. The transistor operations of MESFETs and MOSFETs were studied at elevated temperatures up to 440°C. Transconductances of 1.7mS/mm and 0.15mS/mm for MESFET and 0.8 and 0.05mS/mm for MOSFET at room temperature and 440°C, respectively, were obtained. The drain currentvoltage characteristics of both the FETs at room temperature did not change in the least after heating up to 440°C in the air.
A new butt joining method for ceramics by microwave heating was developed. Ceramics were heated in a rectangular cavity. A klystron of maximum 3 kW at 6 GHz was used as the power amplifier. The heating system can control the iris, plunger and microwave power to keep a power efficiency up to 90% and a accuracy within ±10°C at 1800°C. Microwave ceramic-ceramic joining was tried by using this system. A bending strength of the joined alumina rod (92% purity) was 420 MPa without adhesive. This value was equal to the original strength. Silicon nitride ceramics were joined with adhesive, which was a sintered ceramic sheet having lower purity and larger dielectric loss factor than the base ceramics. The microwave energy was concentrated on the sheet, so that only the joining area was heated. The strengths of joined specimens were in excess of 70% of original strengths. The joined boundary line was not detected in microscopic observation, and there was little difference in microstructure between before and after joining. These results suggest that sintering aids in grain boundary phases were preferentially heated and melted or diffused, resulting in sound joining of ceramics.
In order to evaluate the damage caused by a single MeV ion impact, we prepared highly oriented pyrolytic graphite specimens, each implanted with 3.1 MeV Au, Ag, Cu and Si ions at a dose of 2.3×1011 cm-2 (2300 μm-2). We then observed specimens by using friction force microscope, and found round regions caused by single-ion impacts on the implanted surface. The frictional force between the surface and the silicon-nitride tip increased in disordered regions. The number density of the regions differed at individual ion-implanted surface, and was about 1000 μm-2 at the Au-implanted surface, 880 μm-2 at the Ag-implanted surface, 372 μm-2 at the Cu-implanted surface, and 44 μπτ2 at the Si-implanted surface. We calculated the electronic stopping power and the probability of knock-on atom generation by the nuclear collision to determine which process affected the density. We found that the difference in the number density was closely related to that of nuclear collisions.
Room temperature Raman scattering spectra are reported for the type II superconductors MxBaySi46 (M-Na, K) which were recently shown to exhibit Tc's ∼ 3.5 K. The spectra are compared to those of other Si46-clathrates which exhibit normal metallic behavior down to 2K. Thirteen of the twenty first-order Raman frequencies predicted by group theory have been detected, and the frequencies are found to be sensitive to the particular dopants. The Raman linewidths observed for the MxBaySi46 system are comparable to those observed for Na8Si46 and K7Si46. The data, taken collectively, suggest that the line broadening in the metallic Si-clathrates is due to important contributions from both the electron-phonon interaction as well as to a random filling of the Si cages.
The effect of various electrodes on the ferroelectric properties of lead-zirconate-titanate (Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 PZT) films through the film structure is presented. All the PZT films were deposited by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) using an ArF excimer laser. For electrode materials, YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) and Ni-alloy were deposited by pulsed laser ablation and sputtering, respectively. As a result various kinds of PZT films with various film structures were obtained. These experiments revealed that there is no simple correlation between the film structure and the fatigue resistance. The fatigue resistance is, however, found to be improved primarily by decreasing the switched-charge density, although the correlation shows some ambiguity. This suggests that the large polarization reversal accelerates the fatigue but there remained the possibility that the fatigue resistance is improved by the optimization of the film structure and film-substrate interface.
The dynamic structure of
xLi2S-Ga2S3-6GeS2 (x=4 and 6)
glasses has been investigated by 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance.
In two samples similar values of spin-lattice relaxation time
(T1) were obtained. The relaxation mechanism at 20MHz and 78MHz
is therefore attributed to the local motion of lithium ions. In the glass
corresponding to x=6, which shows higher conductivity, the slow motion of
ions showing an activation energy of 24.3kJ/Mol has been detected by the
spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame (T1p). This
value is comparable to the activation energy determined by the conductivity.
The existence of this mode is supported by the motional narrowing of the
line width which is sensitive to the motion less than 10kHz.
Formations and durabilities of hydrated layers were compared between a soda-aluminosilicate (NAS), a soda-lime-aluminosilicate(NCAS) and a soda-lime-alumino-borosilicate(NCABS) glasses. The first step of our study was to prepare the optically transparent hydrated layers on the surface of specimens by an autoclave(400 °C, 20 kgf/cm2) treatment. Distributions of OH groups in hydrated layers were analyzed by an etch sectioning and FTIR measurement. The rates of hydration of the glasses were in the order NAS»NCAS>NCABS. The hydration of the NCABS glass, which is a modified nuclear waste glass, required the treatment longer than those of the NAS and NCAS glasses. In the second step, we investigated the durabilities of hydrated layers by immersing the specimens into a distilled water at 100 °C. The dissolutions of hydrated layers were confirmed for each glass. The dissolution rates of hydrated layers were in the order NCAS>NCABS»NAS. It has become apparent by an XPS analysis that the highest durability of the hydrated NAS glass was due to the formation of a sodium free Al2O3-SiO2 layer on the surface. The hydrated layer of the NCAS glass, while the sodium ions were almost leached out during immersion, dissolved to water most quickly than those of other glasses. In the hydrated layer of the NCABS glass, a half amount of sodium and boron ions remained and inhibited the dissolution of hydrated layer.
Hydrated glass was prepared by the treatment in an autoclave. Specimen in a good state was obtained under unsaturated water vapor pressure conditions. The obtained glass has an silica-rich hydrated layer and proved to be more durable than the original glass. There are some kinds of hydroxyl species in the hydrated glass and there are some patterns in the depth profile of water, indicating that the rate-controlling process is not a simple diffusion and the hydration process is a complicated reaction depending on the conditions. Water in hydrated glass is tightly bonded and a disintegration of hydrated glass in this study occurs at more than 560°C.
By using an appropriately oriented seed from the TiAl-Si system (Ti-43Al-3Si), the TiAl/Ti3Al lamellar structure has been successfully aligned parallel to the growth direction for TiAl ingots of the Ti-Al-Nb, Ti-Al-Nb-Si, Ti-Al-Ta-Si systems on the basis of the recently proposed method to predict the appropriate compositions. The Al equivalents for Nb and Ta are reevaluated in order to extend the proposed method to large addition (above a several at. %) of these alloying elements. These DS ingots with the lamellar structure all aligned parallel to the loading axis exhibit creep properties far better than conventionally produced TiAl ingots so far reported.
High quality diamond films have been successfully grown, by step-flow, on (001) diamond substrates using an end-launch type chemical vapor deposition reactor. Electrical properties of as-deposited diamond films as well as the surface morphology and the film crystallinity were investigated. Optical and atomic-force microscope images indicated that diamond films consisted of atomically flat terraces and macroscopic steps running parallel to [110×l and 1×2 double-domain structure. The currentvoltage characteristics of Al-Schottky contacts to these step-flow grown diamond films showed excellent rectification properties, indicating the potential of this material for electronic applications.
The band-A emission (around 2.8 eV) observed in high quality (device-grade) homoepitaxial diamond films grown by microwave-plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was studied by means of scanning cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Recent progress in our study on homoepitaxial diamond films was obtained through the low CH4/H2 conditions by CVD. These showed atomically flat surfaces and the excitonic emission at room temperature, while the band-A emission (2.95 eV) decreased. Using these samples, we found that the band-A emission only appeared at unepitaxial crystallites (UC) sites, while other flat surface parts still showed the excitonic emission. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that there were grain boundaries which contained π-bonds in UC. This indicates that one of the origin of the band-A emission in diamond films is attributed to π bonds of grain boundaries.