To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
With the aim to elucidate gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR)–risk factors, we undertook a retrospective analysis of the molecular epidemiology and AMR of 104 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from clinical samples (urethra, rectum, pharynx and cervix) of 94 individuals attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Madrid (Spain) from July to October 2016, and explored potential links with socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical factors of patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by E-tests, and isolates were characterised by N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing. Penicillin resistance was recorded for 15.4% of isolates, and most were susceptible to tetracycline, cefixime and azithromycin; a high incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance (~40%) was found. Isolates were grouped into 51 different sequence types (STs) and 10 genogroups (G), with G2400, ST5441, ST2318, ST12547 and G2992 being the most prevalent. A significant association (P = 0.015) was evident between HIV-positive MSM individuals and having a ciprofloxacin-resistant strain. Likewise, a strong association (P = 0.047) was found between patient age of MSM and carriage of isolates expressing decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. A decrease in the incidence of AMR gonococcal strains and a change in the strain populations previously reported from other parts of Spain were observed. Of note, the prevalent multi-drug resistant genogroup G1407 was represented by only three strains in our study, while the pan-susceptible clones such as ST5441, and ST2318, associated with extragenital body sites were the most prevalent.
The use of cactus cladodes in animal feed is well-established in semi-arid areas. The cactus Nopalea cochenillifera (L.) Salm-Dyck cladodes (Nopalea) have high acceptability amongst dairy cows and are resistant to carmine cochineal insects (Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell), a problem in semi-arid regions, but in regions of prolonged drought, it has lower productivity compared with the cactus Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw cladodes (Opuntia), which is also resistant to the insect. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the intake and content of digestible material of dry matter (DM) and its components, feeding behaviour, microbial protein synthesis, nitrogen balance, blood parameters, performance and milk composition of Holstein cows fed a control diet, containing either Nopalea or Opuntia associated with different concentrate levels (225, 275, 325 and 375 g/kg). Ten cows with an initial average milk production of 20 ± 2.1 kg/day were distributed into a double 5 × 5 Latin square design. Diets containing 775 g roughage/kg and 225 g concentrate/kg promoted similar responses to the analysed variables regardless of the cactus cladode used, except for digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. Diets containing higher proportions of concentrate (325 and 375 g/kg) promoted greater DM intake and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield. The diet containing Opuntia at 775:225 g/kg roughage:concentrate proportion is as effective as the control diet for Holstein cows producing 20 kg of milk/day. To promote greater milk production, higher proportions of concentrate should be added to diets using Opuntia.
Isotopic investigations of human burials from excavations of the Autonomous University of Campeche (CIHS) at the prehispanic Maya capital of Calakmul in southeastern Mexico, near the border with Guatemala, include determination of radiocarbon dates; carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in collagen; and strontium, carbon, and oxygen isotope ratios in tooth enamel. A total of 22 human and 5 faunal samples analyzed for strontium isotopes reveal a narrow range of variation in values, pointing to the likely local origin of over two-thirds of the central population of Calakmul, including two of its rulers. Carbon and nitrogen data confirm a typical Classic Maya diet at the site and identify a diet high in meat consumption for one dynastic individual. Interpreted jointly, the isotopic information offers new perspectives on the provenience and lifestyles of the residents of Calakmul, including a potential place of origin for the royal occupant of chamber tomb Burial VII-1.
We evaluated the impact of the Epic antimicrobial stewardship module (EAM) on the number of interventions, antimicrobial usage, and clinical outcomes. Use of the EAM allowed us to significantly increase the number of ASP antimicrobial reviews and interventions while maintaining a sustained impact on antimicrobial utilization.
Human sacrifice in ancient Mesoamerica was strongly linked with ritual behaviour and mythical beliefs. Yet it is rarely possible to explain the mythical associations of archaeological deposits derived from human sacrifice. In this article, we integrate archaeological, taphonomic and isotopic analysis to reconstruct the ritual behaviour that resulted in the formation of a partially cremated primary burial at the Lowland Maya city of Tikal. Taphonomic reconstruction reveals details about the form of death and combustion of two males, while isotopic studies hint at their probable geographic origin. To explain this ritual, we assess the relevance of widespread Mesoamerican mythical beliefs about the origin of the sun and the moon, and discuss the theoretical and methodological issues involved in this comparison. The burial's association with an E-Group compound makes it significant for the interpretation of these specialized architectural arrangements in southern Mesoamerica. It also pertains to a critical period in Tikal's history, marked by intensified cultural and political interaction with the highland Mexican city of Teotihuacan, manifest in this burial by the presence of imported green obsidian spear points. We propose that this unique context resulted from a sacrificial reenactment of the mythological birth of the sun and the moon.
Several investigations on lichen photobionts (PBs) after exposure to simulated or real-space parameters consistently reported high viability and recovery of photosynthetic activity. These studies focused on PBs within lichen thalli, mostly exposed in a metabolically inactive state. In contrast, a recent study exposed isolated and metabolically active PBs to the non-terrestrial stressor UVC254 nm and found strong impairment of photosynthetic activity and photo-protective mechanisms (Meeßen et al. in 2014b). Under space and Mars conditions, UVC is accompanied by other stressors as extreme desiccation and low temperatures. The present study exposed the PBs of Buellia frigida and Circinaria gyrosa, to UVC in combination with desiccation and subzero temperatures to gain better insight into the combined stressors' effect and the PBs' inherent potential of resistance. These effects were examined by chlorophyll a fluorescence which is a good indicator of photosynthetic activity (Lüttge & Büdel in 2010) and widely used to test the viability of PBs after (simulated) space exposure. The present results reveal fast recovery of photosynthetic activity after desiccation and subzero temperatures. Moreover, they demonstrate that desiccation and cold confer an additional protective effect on the investigated PBs and attenuate the PBs' reaction to another stressor – even if it is a non-terrestrial one such as UVC. Besides other protective mechanisms (anhydrobiosis, morphological–anatomical traits and secondary lichen compounds), these findings may help to explain the high resistance of lichens observed in astrobiological studies.
Anchored in archaeological, bioarchaeological, and chemical research conducted at the coastal enclave of Xcambo, this paper examines Classic period Maya coastal saline economic production and exchange, along with the lifestyle, ethnicity, and mobility of the traders. Nestled in the coastal marshlands of the northern Yucatan, Mexico, Xcambo functioned as a salt production center and port during its occupation, maintaining long-reaching ties with other parts of the Maya world and Veracruz. Considered together, the different data sets document a reorientation in Xcambo's exchange routes and connections, which are echoed by increasingly diverse cultural affiliations and an increasing geographic mobility of Xcambo's merchants. This new information confirms the known pattern of gradually intensifying, though still relatively independent, trade dynamics along the Maya coast in the centuries leading up to the so-called “Maya collapse” and the rise of a new merchant league under the control of Chichen Itza. It was this new order that probably led to the swift end of Xcambo soon after a.d. 700.
The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of cervids that harbours haemotrophic Bartonella. A prerequisite for the vector competence of the deer ked is the vertical transmission of the pathogen from the mother to its progeny and transstadial transmission from pupa to winged adult. We screened 1154 pupae and 59 pools of winged adult deer keds from different areas in Finland for Bartonella DNA using PCR. Altogether 13 pupa samples and one winged adult deer ked were positive for the presence of Bartonella DNA. The amplified sequences were closely related to either B. schoenbuchensis or B. bovis. The same lineages were identified in eight blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. This is the first demonstration of Bartonella spp. DNA in a winged adult deer ked and, thus, evidence for potential transstadial transmission of Bartonella spp. in the species.
In a recent paper [E. Chacón Vera and D. Franco Coronil, J. Numer. Math. 20 (2012) 161–182.] a non standard mortar method for incompressible Stokes problem was introduced where the use of the trace spaces H1 / 2and
H1/200and a direct computation of the pairing of the trace spaces with their duals are the main ingredients. The importance of the reduction of the number of degrees of freedom leads naturally to consider the stabilized version and this is the results we present in this work. We prove that the standard Brezzi–Pitkaranta stabilization technique is available and that it works well with this mortar method. Finally, we present some numerical tests to illustrate this behaviour.
Tests on cyanobacteria communities embedded in cryptobiotic crusts collected in hot and cold deserts on Earth were performed under Mars-like conditions. The simulations were realized as a survey, to find the best samples for future research. During the tests organisms have to resist Mars-like conditions such as atmospheric composition, pressure, variable humidity (saturated and dry conditions) and partly strong UV irradiation. Organisms were tested within their original habitat inside the crust. Nearly half of the cryptobiotic samples from various sites showed survival of a substantial part of their coexisting organisms. The survival in general depended more on the nature of the original habitat and type of the sample than on the different conditions they were exposed to. The best survival was observed in samples from United Arab Emirates (Jebel Ali, 25 km SW of Dubai town) and from Western Australia (near the South edge of Lake Barley), by taxa: Tolypothrix byssoidea, Gloeocapsopsis pleurocapsoides, Nostoc microscopicum, Leptolyngbya or Symploca sp. At both places in salty desert areas members of the Chenopodiaceae family dominated among the higher plants and in the cryptobiotic crust cyanobacterial taxa Tolypothrix was dominant. These organisms were all living in salty locations with dry conditions most of the year. Among them Tolypothrix, Gloeocapsopsis and Symploca sp. were tested in Mars simulation chambers for the first time. The results suggest that extremophiles should be tested with taken into account the context of their original microenvironment, and also the importance to analyse communities of microbes beside single organisms.
We present the development of highly efficient merocyanine solar cells at the example of the dye MD376. Due to their unique processing flexibility, merocyanines have been applied in solution- as well as vacuum-processed organic photovoltaics. In fully vapor-deposited MD376 single cells, efficiencies up to 5.0% were achieved while maintaining a rather simple device setup with only four organic layers. Moreover, MD376 has been successfully introduced to vacuum-processed tandem cell structures, reporting a high open-circuit voltage of 2.1 V.
As a prerequisite for area-wide application of the sterile insect technique in an area encompassing northern Argentina and southern Brazil, prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive compatibility among three geographically distant populations in the area was tested. In field cages, sexually mature adults of each population were found to be sexually compatible, mating duration was not affected by fly origin and there was no clear evidence of spatial partition of mating location. In the laboratory, homotypic and heterotypic crosses for all possible combinations displayed similar levels of fertility and yielded F1 adults without distortion of the sex ratio. Finally, F1 hybrid and parental adults produced equally viable F2 eggs. Put together, our results and those from earlier studies suggest that a large area, ranging from Buenos Aires to the surroundings of São Paulo, could be managed using a single A. fraterculus mass-reared strain. At the northern margin of this area, two A. fraterculus morphotypes appear to coexist in sympatry. We delineate future research to further delimit the distribution of the aff1 morphotype (Argentina-southern Brazil) and to gain insight into evolutionary patterns producing divergence and radiation of tropical fruit fly species.
Fluorinated Single Wall Nanotubes (f-SWNTs) have been processed in polyethylene by an incipient wetting technique to achieve a well dispersed nanocomposite for radiation protection. In some cases, samples were further processed using the rapid prototyping method of extrusion freeform fabrication. Composites were exposed to 40 MeV proton radiation with a flux of about 1.7×107 protons/cm2/sec to a total fluence of 3×1010 protons/cm2.This exposure is consistent with a long-term space mission in low earth orbit. The samples were evaluated by means of Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These results were compared to the unexposed composite and unfilled polymer samples. This study has focused on the stability of the nanotube composites when exposed to radiation and prior to hydrogen exposure. It was shown that the stability of the functional group is not constant with SWNTs produced by different processes and that radiation exposure is capable of defluorinating SWNTs in polyethylene.
It is proposed to supplement a phase diagram by a structural diagram, which represents the mass portions of phases, conglomerates or their elements upon the system concentration at fixed temperature. Methods of structural diagrams and concentration maps construction are considered. Concentration map is a projection of structural diagram. It marks a concentration triangle by the lines of constant mass portions of a phase or its elements.
A whole-diet approach has proven useful for characterising dietary exposure in cardiovascular epidemiology research. In our previous analyses, we found dietary patterns to be significant determinants of CVD risk factor levels among the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns cohort. We investigated the associations of major dietary patterns with carotid intima media thickness (IMT), a subclinical predictor of CVD, in healthy adults. The Young Finns Study is an ongoing, prospective cohort study with a 21-year follow-up to date. The subjects were children and adolescents at baseline in 1980 (aged 3–18 years), and all had reached adulthood by the latest follow-up in 2001 (aged 24–39 years). Complete dietary data from the years 1980, 1986 and 2001 and outcome data from the year 2001 were obtained from 785 subjects. The long-term average pattern score for a traditional dietary pattern (characterised by high consumption of rye, potatoes, butter, sausages, milk and coffee) was associated with IMT especially among subjects with a low score for the health-conscious dietary pattern (characterised by high consumption of vegetables, legumes and nuts, rye, tea, cheese and other dairy products). In multivariable regression analyses using long-term pattern scores as predictors, the traditional dietary pattern was independently associated with IMT in men (P < 0·01), but not in women (P = 0·66). Long-term adherence to traditional food choices seems to increase the risk of developing subclinical atherosclerosis among Finnish men.
To investigate the associations of BMI and overweight in adulthood with consumption of sweets and sugar-sweetened soft drinks in childhood and with the change in consumption between childhood and adulthood.
Longitudinal 21-year follow-up study of Finnish children and adolescents from childhood to adulthood.
The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, comprising participants from both eastern and western Finland.
Boys (n 967) and girls (n 1172) aged 3–18 years at baseline in 1980.
The increase in consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks from childhood to adulthood was directly associated with BMI in adulthood in women (b = 0·45, P = 0·0001) but not in men. In women, BMI increased by 0·45 kg/m2 for every 10-unit increase per month. Consumption of sweets and sugar-sweetened soft drinks in childhood and adolescence was not associated with BMI in adulthood. The change in consumption of sweets was not associated with BMI in adulthood. The increase in the consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks from childhood to adulthood was associated with being overweight (OR = 1·90, 95 % CI 1·38, 2·61) in women, but not in men. No association was found between overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) in adulthood and consumption of sweets in childhood or the change in consumption from childhood to adulthood.
We conclude that direct associations exist between adulthood overweight and BMI and an increase in consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks in women. Thus sugar-sweetened soft drinks consumption may be important when considering weight management in women.
Previous evidence suggests that the lactase gene C/T− 13910 polymorphism (rs4988235) is associated with avoidance of milk products and lower Ca intake. We examined whether the consumption of milk and milk products and the intakes of milk nutrients differ between the lactase genotypes from childhood to young adulthood. Subjects belong to the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study where the first cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 1980 (n 3596), with follow-up studies in 1983, 1986, 1989, 1992 and 2001 (n 2620). The same dietary questionnaire was used throughout the follow-up to collect data on habitual consumption of milk and milk products in all subjects, and daily nutrient intakes were assessed with 48 h dietary recalls in 50 % of the subjects. Subjects with the lactase non-persistence (C/C− 13910) genotype consumed less milk since childhood, but the consumption of other milk products did not differ between the genotypes. In adult females, the lactose content of milk products consumed was lower (P = 0·003), and in both sexes low-lactose and milk-free diets were more common in the C/C− 13910 genotype than in the other genotypes. Inadequate Ca intake was most common in females with the C/C− 13910 genotype as early as in childhood (15–63 %), but in males only in adulthood (24 %). In adult females, preference for low-lactose milk and milk products equalised the differences in Ca intake between the genotypes. Thus, in those with the C/C− 13910 genotype, preference for low-lactose milk and milk products may decrease the risk for inadequate Ca intake.
Integrins are transmembrane proteins that facilitate the interaction of cells with the extracellular environment. They have also been implicated in cancer progression. The effects of nutrients thought to be involved in the prevention of prostate cancer on integrin expression have not been determined. Prostate cancer cell lines representing a range of malignancy from normal (RWPE-1) to highly invasive phenotypes (22Rv1 < LNCaP < PC-3) were cultured with or without lycopene (10 nm), vitamin E (5 μm) or fish oil (100 μm) for 48 h. Growth and integrin (α2β1, αvβ3 and αvβ5) expression were assessed using Trypan Blue exclusion and monoclonal antibodies combined with flow cytometry. Vitamin E enhanced (P < 0·001) whereas fish oil reduced the growth of all the cell lines tested (P < 0·001). Lycopene had no effect on growth. All the malignant cell lines exhibited lower expression of α2β1 with the addition of lycopene to culture media. Supplemental fish oil reduced α2β1 in most invasive cell lines (LNCaP and PC-3). Each nutrient at physiological levels reduced integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5 in most invasive cell lines (PC-3). The results suggest that integrins may represent an additional target of bioactive nutrients and that the effects of nutrients may be dependent on the type of cell line used.