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Several studies have reported association of altered levels of lipids and some trace elements with risk factors for cardiovascular disease development in adulthood. Accordingly, the present study aimed to determine the relationship among the serum levels of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in preterm infants through an assessment of atherogenic indices shortly after birth. Blood samples were collected within 20 min of birth from 45 preterm infants with gestational ages ranging from 32 to 35 weeks. Serum Cu, Zn, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), apolipoprotein-A1 (apoA1) and apolipoprotein-B (apoB) levels were measured, and the TC/HDLc, LDLc/HDLc and apoB/apoA1 ratios were calculated. Upon determining the correlation between the levels of Cu, Zn and these indices of lipid metabolism, triglyceride (TG) and Cu were found to correlate negatively with birth weight (BW) and the standard deviation (s.d.) score for body weight. Furthermore, Cu levels correlated positively with the TG level and TC/HDLc, LDLc/HDLc and apoB/apoA1 ratios and negatively with the HDLc level and HDLc/apoA1 ratios. However, a stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the s.d. score for BW and TG level were significant independent determinants of the Cu level. In contrast, Zn did not correlate with any of these indices. In conclusion, intrauterine growth restriction and the TG level at birth influence Cu levels in preterm infants, whereas atherogenic indices do not affect this parameter.
We have carried out wide field imaging observations in the near-infrared (J, H and K′ band) with a large format array camera attached to the prime focus of the 105 cm Schmidt telescope at Kiso Observatory. The image resolution, limiting magnitudes and the effect of thermal radiation are discussed.
We present the results of wide-field imaging of nearby galaxies observed in the near-infrared using a large format array. The total magnitudes and mass-to-luminosity ratios of NGC 253, M 82, NGC 891, and some cluster members are discussed.
This report has been prepared by the President with the assistance of the Vice-President, the Members of the Organizing Committee, V. V. Ivanov, P. Conti and of D. G. Hummer. The work of Commission 36 comes in contact with that of many commissions. Some subjects may be dealt with more fully in those reports; some subjects may have been “unlawfully” included here. Considerable choice has been exercised by the President about what to mention and in which section of the report to place it. The final product is only indicative of the large amount of work going on. An extensive bibliography has been compiled and will be distributed to commission members.
Commissions 12, 27, 29, 44 and 45 deal with observational material which our theories attempt to interpret, thus it is essential to study the reports of these commissions to appreciate the diversity of material for which theories are needed and against which theories may be checked. The theoretical treatment of the problems of planetary atmospheres, Commission 16, is not entirely divorced from that of stellar atmospheres. To set realistic inner boundary conditions on our atmosphere models and on our thinking, we must consider the material of Commission 35 while to set the outer boundary conditions we may consider the physical state of planetary nebulae which is one subject of Commission 34. When we wish to apply ideas about the interactions between radiation, atoms, ions and molecules we use material which lies in the province of Commission 14.
It is now firmly established that a small anisotropy of the galactic cosmic rays exists, observable from Earth as a variation of intensity in sidereal time. The problem now is to determine more clearly the characteristics of the anisotropy and, in particular, its detailed spatial structure and how it depends upon the energy and composition of the cosmic rays. This is a very difficult task and, in the final analysis, may not be fully achievable from Earth-based observations. The purpose of the present paper is to describe briefly an installation now operating in Tasmania to provide further information on the spatial structure of the anisotropy.
Evidence suggests that breastfeeding during infancy lowers the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its attendant risk factors in adult life. To investigate the influence of feeding type on the risk factors of MS, we assessed insulin sensitivity and lipid and apolipoprotein metabolism in preterm infants. Blood samples were collected from preterm infants at the time of discharge. Infants were separated into two groups: a breast milk (BM) group receiving ⩾90% of their intake from BM, and a mixed-fed (MF) group receiving ⩾50% of their intake from formula. The following indices were then compared between the two groups. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels were used to calculate the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). We also measured serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), apolipoprotein-A1 (apoA1) and apolipoprotein-B (apoB) levels, and the ratios of TC/HDLc, LDLc/HDLc and apoB/apoA1. The mean gestational age was 32.9 weeks at birth, and blood samples were collected at a mean corrected age of 37.4 weeks. There were 22 infants in the BM group and 19 in the MF group. QUICKI was significantly higher in the BM group. TC, HDLc and apoA1 were not significantly different between the groups, but LDLc and apoB levels were significantly higher in the BM group. The TC/HDLc, LDLc/HDLc and apoB/apoA1 ratios were significantly higher in the BM group. In preterm infants, the type of feeding exposure in the early postnatal period may influence glucose, lipid and apolipoprotein metabolism, and affect markers of MS.
It is demonstrated that luminescent porous silicon (PS) exhibits an efficient thermoacoustic effect owing to its extremely low thermal conductivity. The experimental device is composed of a patterned thin Al film electrode (30 nm thick), a microporous PS layer (10–50 μm thick), and a single-crystalline Si (c-Si) wafer. The PS layer was formed by a conventional anodization technique. When an electrical input is provided to the Al electrode as a sinusoidal current followed by Joule's heating, a significant acoustic pressure is produced in front of the device as a result of an efficient heat exchange between PS and air. The output amplitude is in inverse proportion to the square root of the input frequency (0.1-100 kHz) as predicted by a theoretical analysis. The observed effect is a novel useful function of PS as a completely depleted nanocrystalline system.
Thin films of Y-type magnetoplumbite (Ba2Co2Fe12O22: Co2Y) with such a huge unit cell length as 43.5 Å has been successfully fabricated for the first time with the aid of combinatorial optimization of pulsed laser deposition process. Planning a thickness gradient CoO buffer layer on MgAl2O4(111) substrate was very effective for prevent the phase separation of Co deficient impurity (BaFe2O4) to reside in the formation of desired Co2Y phase.From the TEM analysis, the CoO buffer layer of optimum thickness was incorporated into the Co2Y film to make theinterface with the make an atomically sharp.
Magnetic films for miniaturization of planar inductors operating at GHz frequencies require high resistivity and high ferro-magnetic resonance frequency. Y type magnetoplumbite Ba2Co2Fe12O22(Co2Y) is a candidate material to meet such requirements because it has about 10 &m resistivity and resonance frequency higher than 2 GHz. Recently we succeeded in the fabrication of Co2Y epitaxial thin film on MgAl2O4 substrate by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition technique . Here, we report on the magnetic and dielectric properties of this film. The DC resistivity of the film was 7.5 &m. The dielectric constant at 1.25 GHz was measured by a microwave microscope to be 11.0. An easy axis coercive force and saturation magnetization were about 145 Oe and 2000 Gauss respectively, being close to those of bulk sample. Furthermore, the magnetic micro domain structures of Co2Y epitaxial thin films were observed by a scanning SQUID microscope.
After the review of dopant redistribution phenomena observed during formation of near noble metal suicides, we describe the results of our recent experiments to get a better understanding of a mechanism of the dopant redistribution phenomenon in Si substrates. The key factors to understand the dopant redistribution are dopant segregation at the suicide/ Si interface due to lower solubility limit of dopants in suicides, enhanced diffusion of dopants into the Si substrate at much lower temperatures than the ordinary thermal diffusion, and electrical activation of the redistributed dopants. The results of As and carrier concentration measurements before and after Pd2Si formation to make clear the third factor show that the electrical activity of the redistributed As atoms in Si is strongly dependent on the initial activity before Pd2Si formation which is controlled by the temperature for the pre-annealing of As implanted Si.
Shrinkage of extrinsic dislocation loops introduced by As implantation and subsequent annealing have been observed after Pd2Si formation, which is a good evidence of vacancy generation during Pd2Si formation. The role of the vacancies and interstitials on the second factor, the enhanced diffusion, has also been discussed. Finally we list a few issues to be answered in future by more detailed works in order to get a complete understanding of the redistribution phenomenon.
A new method for the direct observation of two-dimensional gas flow patterns in a CVD reactor has been developed by combining a laser scanning technique with generating micron-sized TiO2 particles. With this specially developed technology, the size of generated TiO2 particles are quite uniform, and of high density by the use of hydrolysis of Ti-alkoxide in the ceramic honeycomb at the top inlet of the model chamber. In this system, vertical cross sections of the gas flow patterns can be visualized by illuminated TiO2 particles in a He-Ne laser light sheet. Using this technique, detailed gas flow patterns can be clearly identified in the reaction chamber. Changes in the gas flow patterns with the various growth conditions, such as gas flow rate and pressure, have been measured. In this presentation, GaAs thin film growth by the MOCVD method will be reported as an example.
This gas flow visualization method could be a useful tool to identify the mechanism of CVD reactions to give better understanding about carrier gas transport and thin film growth for wide band gap semiconductors such as GaN, a-SiC, SiNx, etc.
We have fabricated ZnSe p-n junction LEDs with a new structure of
Pt/p-ZnSe/n-ZnSe/n-GaAs. The dopant used for n-type ZnSe was Cl, and p-type
ZnSe:N was formed by nitrogen radical doping. The LEDs exhibited good
rectification properties. We have found that electroluminescence at 77 K was
dominated by recombination emission between free electrons and acceptor
holes at 2.705 eV. Increasing the temperature, recombination emission
between donor electrons and free holes dominated blue bandedge emission
Some nonlinear electrical characteristics in electroluminescent porous silicon (PS) diodes with a relatively thin PS layer (0.5–5 μm thick) are described. The experimental PS diodes were composed of a semitransparent Au film, a PS layer, p- or n-type Si substrate, and an ohmic back contact. The PS layers were prepared by anodizing Si wafers in an ethanoic HF solution. In some cases, the PS layers were treated by rapid thermal oxidization (RTO) process. When the bias voltage is applied, the PS diodes show the electrical behavior like the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diodes. The negative-resistance characteristics and memory effect are also observed. These results indicate that the quantum-structured nature of the PS layer appears not only in the optical properties but also in the electrical properties.
The transition from Al to Cu for advanced ULSI interconnects involves changes in architecture and deposition technique that will influence the microstructure and texture of the metal. Cu interconnects are typically formed within the confines of pre-patterned trenches and vias using an electroplating process with a sputtered Cu conduction layer deposited over a refractory metalbased diffusion barrier layer. In this paper, we focus on the influence of the barrier layer (PVD Ti/TiN, Ta, TaN, CVD TiN) and the effect of a vacuum break between barrier and conduction layer depositions, on the texture of the Cu lines, as examined by X-ray diffraction pole figure analysis.
A preferred (111) orientation was observed for all samples. The samples with no vacuum break between barrier and conduction layer deposition exhibited in plane anisotropy that was particularly pronounced for the Ta and TaN samples compared with the Ti/TiN sample. Focused ion beam images and transmission electron micrographs showed Cu grain size to be on the order of the trench width with a high degree of twinning, and no boundary could be distinguished between the PVD Cu conduction layer and the electroplated Cu.
Low temperature oxidation process of Si(100) substrates using atomic oxygen has been proposed. For the generation of atomic oxygen, microwave plasma remotely attached on the oxidation chamber was used. In the microwave plasma, the large amount of rare gas and a small amount of 02 gas mixture was supplied. The existence of the large amount of rare gas controls the plasma energy to some restricted values associated with the metastable states of the rare gas. Consequently, using Kr as mixed rare gas, atomic oxygen were efficiently generated instead of excited 02 molecules with any vibrational or ionized states. The oxidation kinetics of crystalline Si using this process was shown to be diffusion limiting, even if the oxide thickness was less than several nm. The activation energy of B, which is referred to as the parabolic rate constant, was found to be as low as 0.14eV In addition, lower interface trap density of 2.6 × 1011/cm2/eV at the mid gap could be achieved for the as-grown SiO2/Si(100) interface at the processing temperature of 500C.
Fully epitaxial Pb (Zr,Ti)O3(PZT)/MgO/Si(001) stacked structures, one of the potential components of ferroelectric-gate FETs, have been fabricated and characterized. According to the structural and electrical characterization of MgO/Si structures, epitaxially grown MgO thin films on the Si substrates showed a small leakage current of ∼ 10−8 A/cm2 at the electric field of 1 MV/cm. In the C-V measurements of the as-grown MgO/Si heteroepitaxial interfaces, injection-type hysteresis was observed because of the crystal defects in the MgO film adjacent to the interface. Using oxygen annealing with a temperature of 400 °C, it showed no hysteresis and a lower interface trap density of the order of 1011 cm−2eV−1 could be achieved with no formation of a low dielectric layer at the MgO/Si interface. These results indicate that the epitaxial MgO thin films are applicable as the gate insulators of FETs. After the PZT film was deposited on the MgO/Si structure, the C-V characteristic of the stacked structure showed a ferroelectric hysteresis curve and the low interface trap density of 5 × 1011 cm−2eV−1 A maximum memory window width of 1.2 V could be obtained in the PZT thin film on the Si substrate with a MgO intermediate layer.
In order to reduce specific contact resistance at via/interconnect interface and to avoid device degradation with Cu diffusion into dielectrics, via cleaning technology is a critical issue for a scaled down Cu multilevel metallization. Effects of cleaning processes are investigated for CHF3 plasma-etched SiO2/SiN/Cu via-structures. Effects of dilute HF (DHF) cleaning, hydrogen plasma cleaning, oxygen plasma cleaning, hexafluoroacetylacetone (H(hfac)) vapor cleaning, and vacuum anneal cleaning are investigated using an angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cu contamination removal using dilute oxalic acid (DOA) is investigated using total reflection xray fluorescence analysis (TRXRF). Based on the results, we developed an optimized cleaning sequence which consists of a brief oxygen plasma exposure, DHF dipping, followed by exposure to H(hfac) vapors. The cleaning sequence is effective in obtaining a clean dielectric surface and an oxide-free Cu surface at via bottom. Direct-contacted via structures were fabricated by a dualdamascene process using the cleaning sequence. The specific contact resistance reduces to 20% of the reported values. We expect that the via resistance is low enough to be used in 0.13 µm generation and beyond.
The thermoelectric properties of Ni1-xCux (0<x<1) alloy are measured from 323K to 950K. The sample with optimized composition, Ni70Cu30 is found to possess large power factor value of 0.012 Wm−1K−2 at around 950K. Estimated figure of merit value ZT is 0.21 for Ni50Cu50 and 0.18 for Ni70Cu30 at the same temperature. A novel attempt of high-throughput parallel synthesis using multiple-wells is carried out to test the feasibility of combinatorial approach in this material system. The Seebeck coefficient is visualized over the multiple-wells combinatorial library and the other Ni-Cu composition-spread, and it is proved that further enhancement of throughput could be possible by conducting systematic experiments based on the combinatorial approaches performed in this study.
Bi2Te3-based thin films were fabricated on glass substrates by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The vapor pressures of Bi and Te are significantly different, so controlling the stoichiometric composition is difficult when using conventional physical vapor deposition techniques, and the thermoelectric properties of Bi2Te3 films are sensitive to the film composition. PLD is a promising technique for the fabrication of telluride-based films such as Bi2Te3 due to its superior capability for controlling the film composition. Another advantage of PLD is the flexibility that it allows in terms of atmosphere in the reaction chamber; high concentrations of gases such as oxygen or argon can be introduced. We have measured various compositions of Bi2Te3 based films, and have identified the optimal compositions for both n-type and p-type material. The thermal conductivities of these Bi2Te3 films were evaluated by an exact measuring system, and the results were twice as low as those of conventional bulk materials. These results suggest that PLD has significant advantages for the deposition of in-plane Bi2Te3-based thin films.
High-resolution angle resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were conducted on rubrene single crystals successfully through relief of the sample charging assisted by a laser illumination. Significant dispersion of the valence band was clearly resolved. The band width W and the hole effective mass mh* were estimated to be 0.4 eV and 0.7m0, respectively, along the most conductive direction. The present results strongly suggest that the transport nature in rubrene single crystals should be described in the band transport framework of a delocalized charge carrier.