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Reduced white matter integrity in the corpus callosum (CC) has been reported in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). rTMS is assumed to have remote effect on interconnected area with the stimulation site, and this effect is speculated to be one of the therapeutic mechanisms of rTMS treatment. In this preliminary study, we examined changes of callosal fiber integrity in 5 segments of the CC before and after rTMS treatment for TRD.
The subjects were 2 patients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression and 1 patient with treatment-resistant bipolar depression, and 24 healthy controls (HC group). The patients underwent 4-week high frequency rTMS to their left DLPFC. In diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, the CC was divided into 5 segments (orbital, frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital) based on their cortical projection zones, and fractional anisotropy (FA) value of each segment was estimated. We compared FA in the CC between the patients and the HC groups, and examined changes of FA in the CC after rTMS treatment in the patients.
The patients showed reduced FA in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital-callosal segments compared to the HC group. All patients responded to the rTMS treatment, and FA in the orbital, frontal, parietal, temporal-callosal segments increased after the rTMS treatment.
Our results suggest that white matter integrity in the CC is reduced in TRD and that increased white matter integrity in the CC might be related with the therapeutic mechanisms of rTMS treatment.
In bipolar disorder (BD), reduced white matter (WM) integrity in the corpus callosum has been reported, but its detailed localization difference has not been clarified. In this study, we examined fiber integrity in 7 segments of the corpus callosum and their relationships with clinical symptoms in BD.
Patients with BD (BD group, n = 17) and age-matched healthy controls (HC group, n = 24) were examined using diffusion tensor imaging tractography. The corpus callosum was divided into 7 segments (orbital frontal, anterior frontal, superior frontal, superior parietal, posterior parietal, temporal, and occipital) based on their cortical projection zones, and fractional anisotropy (FA) value of each segment was estimated. Differences in FA of each segment between the groups were examined using ANOVA with repeated measures. Correlations between FA of each segment and clinical symptoms (HAM-D, YMRS) were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation test in the BD group.
The BD group showed reduced FA in the orbital frontal, superior frontal, and posterior parietal-callosal segments compared to the HC group. In addition, the BD group showed a significant negative correlation between FA in the orbital frontal-callosal segment and HAM-D scores.
Our results suggest that WM integrity in the anterior part of the corpus callosum is reduced in BD and that orbital frontal-callosal disintegrity may be related with severity of bipolar depression.
Granular flows occur in a wide range of situations of practical interest to industry, in our natural environment and in our everyday lives. This paper focuses on granular flow in the so-called inertial regime, when the rheology is independent of the very large particle stiffness. Such flows have been modelled with the
-rheology, which postulates that the bulk friction coefficient
(i.e. the ratio of the shear stress to the pressure) and the solids volume fraction
are functions of the inertial number
only. Although the
-rheology has been validated in steady state against both experiments and discrete particle simulations in several different geometries, it has recently been shown that this theory is mathematically ill-posed in time-dependent problems. As a direct result, computations using this rheology may blow up exponentially, with a growth rate that tends to infinity as the discretization length tends to zero, as explicitly demonstrated in this paper for the first time. Such catastrophic instability due to ill-posedness is a common issue when developing new mathematical models and implies that either some important physics is missing or the model has not been properly formulated. In this paper an alternative to the
-rheology that does not suffer from such defects is proposed. In the framework of compressible
-dependent rheology (CIDR), new constitutive laws for the inertial regime are introduced; these match the well-established
relations in the steady-state limit and at the same time are well-posed for all deformations and all packing densities. Time-dependent numerical solutions of the resultant equations are performed to demonstrate that the new inertial CIDR model leads to numerical convergence towards physically realistic solutions that are supported by discrete element method simulations.
Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are the most promising candidates for flexible electronics owing to their flexible structures, the simplicity of processing large-area devices, and excellent compatibility with flexible substrates. To date, many studies have been reported that have aimed at developing a wide range of plastic electronics such as flexible displays, sensors. In this paper, we discuss our recent work, focusing on OTFT arrays and their application to flexible display. An active-matrix (AM) backplane using a low-temperature cross-linkable olefin-type polymer as the gatedielectric and an air-stable DNTT as the organic semiconductor (OSC) was successfully fabricated on a plastic substrate. The short-channel TFT array exhibited a high hole mobility of over 0.5 cm2/Vs, a low subthreshold slope of 0.31, and excellent environmental and operational stability. A 5-inch flexible OLED display exhibited a high luminescence of over 300 cd/m2 by driving of the DNTT-based OTFTs. Solution-processed OTFTs are also attracting considerable attention owing to both their simple manufacturing process and excellent transistor performance. We present a simple patterning process for a solution-processable OSC that can be used to develop a high-mobility short-channel TFT array. The OSC film was directly patterned on the confined active channel region by a simple lamination coating technique and the resulting TFTs showed a high mobility of up to 1.3 cm2/Vs. In the final section, we report on eco-friendly paper-based organic TFT array. A transparent cellulose nanofibers paper was firstly applied to a flexible substrate for the TFT backplane. A solution-processed TFT on the transparent paper exhibited a high mobility exceeding 1 cm2/Vs, good air stability, and excellent mechanical stability.
The gullet worm (Gongylonema pulchrum) has been recorded from a variety of mammals worldwide, including monkeys and humans. Due to its wide host range, it has been suggested that the worm may be transmitted locally to any mammalian host by chance. To investigate this notion, the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA), mainly regions of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2, and a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region of mitochondrial DNA of G. pulchrum were characterized using parasites from the following hosts located in Japan: cattle, sika deer, wild boars, Japanese macaques, a feral Reeves's muntjac and captive squirrel monkeys. The rDNA nucleotide sequences of G. pulchrum were generally well conserved regardless of their host origin. However, a few insertions/deletions of nucleotides along with a few base substitutions in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions were observed in G. pulchrum from sika deer, wild boars and Japanese macaques, and those differed from G. pulchrum in cattle, the feral Reeves's muntjac and captive squirrel monkeys. The COI sequences of G. pulchrum were further divided into multiple haplotypes and two groups of haplotypes, i.e. those from a majority of sika deer, wild boars and Japanese macaques and those from cattle and zoo animals, were clearly differentiated. Our findings indicate that domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles of the gullet worm are currently present, at least in Japan.
Eimeria tenella is recognized worldwide as a significant pathogen in the poultry industry. However, a lack of methods for isolating developing schizonts has hindered the use of transcriptome analyses to discover novel and developmentally regulated genes. In the present study, we characterized the long-term successive development of E. tenella in infected chicken caeca and assessed the utility of laser microdissection (LMD) for the isolation of schizont RNA. Developmental stages, including those of the first, second, and third-generation schizonts and gametocytes, were synchronous. Using LMD, only the mature second-generation schizonts were successfully excised from the lamina propria, and non-degraded RNA was purified from the schizonts. E. tenella-specific genes were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These results augment our understanding of the E. tenella life cycle, and reveal LMD as a potentially useful tool for gene expression analyses of the intracellular stages of E. tenella.
Acute diarrhoea remains a major public health challenge in developing countries. We examined the role of a probiotic in the prevention of acute diarrhoea to discover if there was an effect directed towards a specific aetiology. A double-blind, randomized, controlled field trial involving 3758 children aged 1–5 years was conducted in an urban slum community in Kolkata, India. Participants were given either a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota or a nutrient drink daily for 12 weeks. They were followed up for another 12 weeks. The primary outcome of this study was the occurrence of first episodes of diarrhoea. We assessed this during 12 weeks of intake of study agent and also for 12 weeks of follow-up. There were 608 subjects with diarrhoea in the probiotic group and 674 subjects in the nutrient group during the study period of 24 weeks. The level of protective efficacy for the probiotic was 14% (95% confidence interval 4–23, P<0·01 in adjusted model). The reduced occurrence of acute diarrhoea in the probiotic group compared to nutrient group was not associated with any specific aetiology. No adverse event was observed in children of either probiotic or nutrient groups. The study suggests that daily intake of a probiotic drink can play a role in prevention of acute diarrhoea in young children in a community setting of a developing country.
A test case comparison is presented for different dust cloud model approaches applied in brown dwarfs and giant gas planets. We aim to achieve more transparency in evaluating the uncertainty inherent to theoretical modelling. We show in how far model results for characteristic dust quantities vary due to different assumptions. We also demonstrate differences in the spectral energy distributions resulting from our individual cloud modelling in 1D substellar atmosphere simulations.
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity and the utility of the Japanese version of the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5-J) in the context of detecting suicidal ideation in elderly community residents.
Methods: A sample of 696 subjects aged 70 years or over who completed a set of questionnaires was examined.
Results: Cronbach's α was 0.87 and Loevinger's coefficient was 0.64. The total score was significantly correlated with the number of cohabitants, the number of physical illnesses, physical functioning, instrumental activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms. Subjects with suicidal ideation had significantly lower scores on the WHO-5-J. The receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the scale significantly discriminated the subjects with suicidal ideation. When combined with the assessment of a lack of perceived social support (PSS), a standard cut-off criterion of “a total score ≤ 12 or answering 0 or 1 to any of the five items” more appropriately identified elderly subjects with suicidal ideation: sensitivity = 87%, specificity = 75%, negative predictive value = 99%, and positive predictive value = 10%.
Conclusions: In combination with PSS, the scale has predictive utility to detect suicidal ideation in elderly community residents.
Sodium fluoride (NaF) is an anion that has been previously shown to block the moulting process of Ascaris suum larvae. This study describes moulting and development-specific protein expression profiles of A. suum lung-stage L3 (AsLL3) following NaF exposure. AsLL3s cultured in the presence or absence of NaF were prepared for protein analysis using two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis. NaF exposure inhibited at least 22 proteins in AsLL3 compared with moulted larvae (i.e. AsLL4). A further comparison of AsLL4 with those of pre-cultured AsLL3 and NaF-exposed AsLL3 revealed 8 stage-specifically and 4 over-expressed proteins. Immunoblot analysis revealed an inhibition by NaF of 19 immunoreactive proteins. Enzyme assay and immunochemical data showed an inhibition of the moulting-specific inorganic pyrophosphatase activity by 41% and a decreased expression in NaF-treated larvae, indicating its significance in the moulting process. A protein spot associated with NaF inhibition was isolated and identified by peptide mass spectrometry and bioinformatics approaches to be a member of 3–hydroxyacyl–CoA dehydrogenase/short-chain dehydrogenase enzyme families. These results have implications for the identification of proteins specific to the moulting process as potential chemotherapeutic targets.
In January 2003, two cases of Legionnaires' disease associated with a ship's cruise were registered in the database of National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases. A 70-year-old male heavy smoker with mild emphysema contracted the disease during a cruise. Legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg) 5 was isolated from the patient's sputum and the ship's indoor spa. The isolate from the spa matched the patient's isolate by genotyping performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The second case was in a 73-year-old female. During epidemiological investigation, a third case of Legionnaire's disease in a 71-year-old male was subsequently diagnosed among passengers on the same ship on the following cruise. Environmental investigation revealed that porous natural stones (Maifanshi) in the filters of the spas had harboured L. pneumophila, a phenomenon which has not been reported except in Japan. This is the first documented evidence of L. pneumophila sg 5 infection on a ship and of porous stones as a source of Legionella infection.
A new micro-X-ray flourescence (XRF) instrument was developed in combination with an atomic force microscope (AFM). A small pinhole of 5 or 10 μm was made on the AFM cantilever. The center of the micro-X-ray beam generated by a polycapillary X-ray lens was passed through the pinhole. The present experiment demonstrated that the size of the original X-ray beam of 48 μm produced by the polycapillary lens was reduced to about 10 μm. This instrument enables both observation of the surface morphology by the AFM and elemental analysis by micro-XRF.
The cloning and molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding Ascaris suum 24 kDa antigen (As24) are described. The cDNA sequence consists of 853 bp with an open reading frame coding for a protein of 147 amino acids with an inferred signal peptide of 19 amino acids. The predicted molecular mass and pI were 16 kDa and 8·35 respectively. The endogenous protein in adult A. suum was 24 kDa with the expected pI. A search of the public databases revealed over 50% homology with proteins from filarial parasites but not to other known proteins, suggesting that As24 is a nematode-specific protein. Immunohistochemical studies using polyclonal antibodies raised against Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant As24 demonstrated that the endogenous As24 proteins were intensely localized in unembryonated eggs within the uterus, uterine and gut epithelium, muscle tissues and in the hypodermis of an adult female A. suum. Endogenous As24 was expressed throughout A. suum development and was detected in the excretory/secretory products by immunoblot analysis. Importantly, a homologous protein(s) was detected in Ascaris from human and Toxocara canis from dog, suggesting that As24 is a nematode-specific protein.
The stability of B atom near the Si(100)/SiO2 interface
during annealing is studied by using ab initio calculation
to investigate the atomic scale mechanism of B segregation
at the Si(100)/SiO2 interface. Contrary to the experimental
observations showing that B atoms segregate into SiO2, B
atoms are found to be stable in Si free of defects. But
authors can rephrase differently this sentence. On the other
hand, when an O vacancy exists in SiO2, the B atom is
trapped by the O vacancy and becomes quite stable in SiO2.
The growth of the D03-type antiphase domain (APD) in Fe3Al was investigated focusing on the effect of excess vacancies that were introduced during the quenching process from the disordered state. The variation in the APD size exhibited considerable deviation from the conventional “parabolic growth law” in the early stage of APD growth. This variation was numerically calculated on the assumption that the migration of the APD boundaries was enhanced by non-equilibrium excess vacancies and the vacancy concentration decreased during the isothermal annealing for the APD growth. The calculated variations in the APD size could be successfully fitted to the experimental results in cases with quenching temperatures (Tq) of 873 K or 1073 K, but not when Tq was 1273 K. The APD growth in the latter case was much slower than the expected growth derived from the calculation. This discrepancy was attributed to the rapid decrease in the vacancy concentration due to vacancy clustering since a significant amount of dotted contrasts were observed in TEM image of only the specimen quenched from 1273K.
Nanoindentation was performed to evaluate the matrix strength of the ultra-fine grained steel produced by accumulative roll-bonding and subsequently annealed. The nanohardness, associated with the matrix strength, decreases with increasing annealing temperature. Because the matrix strength corresponds to the first term σ0 of the Hall–Petch relation, this result suggests that the σ0 might not be constant for these steels between various grain sizes. Therefore, it is suggested that the change of the macroscopic strength during annealing is dominated by not only the grain coarsening leading to a reduction of grain refinement strengthening, but also the softening of the matrix strength.
Thirty Japanese clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were analysed by pyrazinamide susceptibility testing and pyrazinamidase assay, as well as polymerase chain reaction for single-strand conformational polymorphism and direct sequencing of the gene encoding pyrazinamidase (pncA). All sensitive isolates showed pyrazinamidase activity and a wild-type pncA gene, but three resistant isolates had pncA gene mutations and lacked pyrazinamidase activity. The latter isolates showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of at least 100 mg/l by the 7H10 agar proportion method and 400 mg/l by the 7H9 liquid medium method. Isolate 28 showed T-to-C change at position 11, leading to Leu4→Ser substitution; isolate 29 had an 8-bp deletion from position 382; and isolate 30 had A-to-C change at position 29, leading to Gln10→Pro substitution. The deletion has not been described previously. This is the first demonstration of pncA gene mutations in PZA-resistant M. tuberculosis strains isolated from Japanese patients.