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Behavioural activation (BA) is an evidence-based treatment for depression that has been primarily delivered in individual out-patient treatment. Prior research supports a positive participant experience in individual therapy; however, less is known about the patient experience in group therapy, which is common in acute psychiatric settings.
The present study examined the patient experience of Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD) delivered in group acute psychiatric treatment.
We used thematic analysis to extract themes from feedback surveys administered as part of quality improvement practice at a partial hospital program. Survey questions explored what patients learned, liked, disliked and thought could be improved in the BATD groups. Three individuals independently coded survey responses and collaboratively developed categories and themes.
Themes included several helpful content areas (e.g. value-driven activities, increasing motivation, goal setting, activity scheduling, cognitive behavioural model, self-monitoring) and learning methods (e.g. group format, experiential exercises, worksheets). Patients also identified unhelpful content (e.g. specific focus on depression and listing activities by mood). There was mixed feedback regarding the repetition of material and balance of lecture versus group participation.
Overall, these findings suggest a mostly positive patient experience of group-delivered BATD and support the acceptability of group-delivered BATD as a component of short-term intensive treatment.
Beef cattle are often fed high-concentrate diet (HCD) to achieve high growth rate. However, HCD feeding is strongly associated with metabolic disorders. Mild acid treatment of grains in HCD with 1% hydrochloric acid (HA) followed by neutralization with sodium bicarbonate (SB) might modify rumen fermentation patterns and microbiota, thereby decreasing the negative effects of HCD. This study was thus aimed to investigate the effects of treatment of corn with 1% HA and subsequent neutralization with SB on rumen fermentation and microbiota, inflammatory response and growth performance in beef cattle fed HCD. Eighteen beef cattle were randomly allocated to three groups and each group was fed different diets: low-concentrate diet (LCD) (concentrate : forage = 40 : 60), HCD (concentrate : forage = 60 : 40) or HCD based on treated corn (HCDT) with the same concentrate to forage ratio as the HCD. The corn in the HCDT was steeped in 1% HA (wt/wt) for 48 h and neutralized with SB after HA treatment. The animal trial lasted for 42 days with an adaptation period of 7 days. At the end of the trial, rumen fluid samples were collected for measuring ruminal pH values, short-chain fatty acids, endotoxin (or lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and bacterial microbiota. Plasma samples were collected at the end of the trial to determine the concentrations of plasma LPS, proinflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins (APPs). The results showed that compared with the LCD, feeding the HCD had better growth performance due to a shift in the ruminal fermentation pattern from acetate towards propionate, butyrate and valerate. However, the HCD decreased ruminal pH and increased ruminal LPS release and the concentrations of plasma proinflammatory cytokines and APPs. Furthermore, feeding the HCD reduced bacterial richness and diversity in the rumen. Treatment of corn increased resistant starch (RS) content. Compared with the HCD, feeding the HCDT reduced ruminal LPS and improved ruminal bacterial microbiota, resulting in decreased inflammation and improved growth performance. In conclusion, although the HCD had better growth performance than the LCD, feeding the HCD promoted the pH reduction and the LPS release in the rumen, disturbed the ruminal bacterial stability and increased inflammatory response. Treatment of corn with HA in combination with subsequent SB neutralization increased the RS content and helped counter the negative effects of feeding HCD to beef steers.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) is one of the most important wheat pests with polyphagia and autumn migrants. And, chemosensory genes were thought to play a key role in insect searching their hosts, food and mate. However, a systematic identification of the chemosensory genes in this pest has not been reported. Thus, in this study, we identified 14 odorant-binding proteins, nine chemosensory proteins, one sensory neuron membrane protein, 15 odorant receptors, 19 gustatory receptors and 16 ionotropic receptors from R. padi transcriptomes with a significantly similarity (E-value < 10−5) to known chemosensory genes in Acyrthosiphon pisum and Aphis gossypii. In addition, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was employed to determine the expression profiles of obtained genes. Among these obtained genes, we selected 23 chemosensory genes to analyze their expression patterns in different tissues, wing morphs and host plants. We found that except RpOBP1, RpOBP3, RpOBP4 and RpOBP5, the rest of the selected genes were highly expressed in the head with antennae compared with body without head and antennae. Besides that, the stimulation and depression of chemosensory genes by plant switch indicated that chemosensory genes might be involved in the plant suitability assessment. These results not only provide insights for the potential roles of chemosensory genes in plant search and perception of R. padi but also provide initial background information for the further research on the molecular mechanism of the polyphagia and autumn migrants of it. Furthermore, these chemosensory genes are also the candidate targets for pest management control in future.
Violators of cooperation norms may be informally punished by their peers. How such norm enforcement is judged by others can be regarded as a meta-norm (i.e., a second-order norm). We examined whether meta-norms about peer punishment vary across cultures by having students in eight countries judge animations in which an agent who over-harvested a common resource was punished either by a single peer or by the entire peer group. Whether the punishment was retributive or restorative varied between two studies, and findings were largely consistent across these two types of punishment. Across all countries, punishment was judged as more appropriate when implemented by the entire peer group than by an individual. Differences between countries were revealed in judgments of punishers vs. non-punishers. Specifically, appraisals of punishers were relatively negative in three Western countries and Japan, and more neutral in Pakistan, UAE, Russia, and China, consistent with the influence of individualism, power distance, and/or indulgence. Our studies constitute a first step in mapping how meta-norms vary around the globe, demonstrating both cultural universals and cultural differences.
Using the spectroscopic distances of over 0.12 million A-type stars selected from the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-center (LSS-GAC), we map their three-dimensional number density distributions in the Galaxy. These stellar number density maps allow an investigation of the Galactic young age thin disk structure with no a priori assumptions about the functional form of its components. The data show strong evidence for a significant flaring young disk. A more detail analysis show that the stellar flaring have different behaviours between the Northern and the Southern Galactic disks. The maps also reveal spatially coherent, kpc-scale stellar substructure in the thin disk. Finally, we detect the Perseus arm stellar overdensity at R ~ 10 kpc.
A higher-order function may evolve phylogenetically if it is demanded by multiple domain-specific modules. Task-specificity to solve a unique adaptive problem (e.g., foraging or mating) should be distinguished from function-specificity to deal with a common computational demand (e.g., numeracy, verbal communication) required by many tasks. A localized brain function is likely a result of such common computational demand.
In this paper, we experimentally study the unique surface sensing property and enhanced sensitivity in subwavelength grating (SWG) based microring resonator biosensors versus conventional ring resonator biosensors. In contrast to a conventional ring, the effective sensing region in the SWG microring resonator includes not only the top and side of the waveguide, but also the space between the silicon pillars on the propagation path of the optical mode. It leads to an unique property of thickness-independent surface sensitivity versus common evanescent wave sensors; in other words, the surface sensitivity remains constantly high with progressive attachment of biomolecules to the sensor surface. To increase the robustness of performance of ring shaped circular SWG biosensors, we experimentally demonstrate silicon SWG racetrack resonators. A quality factor of 9800 and bulk sensitivity (S) is ∼429.7 nm/RIU (refractive index per unit) results in an intrinsic detection limit (iDL) 3.71×10-4 RIU in racetrack SWG biosensors while still retaining the accumulated surface thickness properties of circular rings.
While Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae), an important invasive pest of ornamentals and vegetables has been found in China for the past two decades, few studies have focused on its genetics or route of invasive. In this study, we collected 288 L. sativae individuals across 12 provinces to explore its population genetic structure and migration patterns in China using seven microsatellites. We found relatively low levels of genetic diversity but moderate population genetic structure (0.05 < FST < 0.15) in L. sativae from China. All populations deviated significantly from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium due to heterozygote deficiency. Molecular variance analysis revealed that more than 89% of variation was among samples within populations. A UPGMA dendrogram revealed that SH and GXNN populations formed one cluster separate from the other populations, which is in accordance with STRUCTURE and GENELAND analyses. A Mantel test indicated that genetic distance was not correlated to geographic distance (r = −0.0814, P = 0.7610), coupled with high levels of gene flow (M = 40.1–817.7), suggesting a possible anthropogenic influence on the spread of L. sativae in China and on the effect of hosts. The trend of asymmetrical gene flow was from southern to northern populations in general and did not exhibit a Bridgehead effect during the course of invasion, as can be seen by the low genetic diversity of southern populations.
While oral antidepressants reach efficacy after weeks, single-dose intravenous (i.v.) ketamine has rapid, yet time-limited antidepressant effects. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of single-dose i.v. ketamine augmentation of escitalopram in major depressive disorder (MDD).
Thirty outpatients with severe MDD (17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score ⩾24) were randomized to 4 weeks double-blind treatment with escitalopram 10 mg/day+single-dose i.v. ketamine (0.5 mg/kg over 40 min) or escitalopram 10 mg/day + placebo (0.9% i.v. saline). Depressive symptoms were measured using the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology – Self-Report (QIDS-SR). Suicidal ideation was evaluated with the QIDS-SR item 12. Adverse psychopathological effects were measured with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)-positive symptoms, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS). Patients were assessed at baseline, 1, 2, 4, 24 and 72 h and 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Time to response (⩾50% MADRS score reduction) was the primary outcome.
By 4 weeks, more escitalopram + ketamine-treated than escitalopram + placebo-treated patients responded (92.3% v. 57.1%, p = 0.04) and remitted (76.9% v. 14.3%, p = 0.001), with significantly shorter time to response [hazard ratio (HR) 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01–0.22, p < 0.001] and remission (HR 0.11, 95% CI 0.02–0.63, p = 0.01). Compared to escitalopram + placebo, escitalopram + ketamine was associated with significantly lower MADRS scores from 2 h to 2 weeks [(peak = 3 days–2 weeks; effect size (ES) = 1.08–1.18)], QIDS-SR scores from 2 h to 2 weeks (maximum ES = 1.27), and QIDS-SR suicidality from 2 to 72 h (maximum ES = 2.24). Only YMRS scores increased significantly with ketamine augmentation (1 and 2 h), without significant BPRS or CADSS elevation.
Single-dose i.v. ketamine augmentation of escitalopram was safe and effective in severe MDD, holding promise for speeding up early oral antidepressant efficacy.
We show that redshift-space distortions of galaxy correlations have a strong effect on correlation functions with the signature of the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). Near the line of sight, the features become sharper as a result of redshift-space distortions. We analyze the SDSS DR7 main-galaxy sample (MGS), splitting the sample into slices 2.5 deg on the sky in various rotations. Measuring 2D correlation functions in each slice, we do see a sharp bump along the line of sight. Using Mexican-hat wavelets, we localize it to (110 ± 10) h − 1 Mpc and estimate its significance at about 4σ.
In this work, we report on development of one-dimensional reaction-diffusion simulator needed to understand the kinetics of Cu-related metastabilities observed in CdTe PV devices. Evolution of intrinsic and Cu-related defects in CdTe solar cells has been studied in time-space domain self-consistently with free carrier transport. Resulting device performance was simulated as a function of stress time, thus showing pronounced effect that the evolution of associated acceptor and donor states can cause on device characteristics. Although 1D simulation has intrinsic limitations when applied to poly-crystalline films, the results presented confirm the validity and the potential of the approach presented in better understanding of the performance and metastabilities of CdTe photovoltaic devices.
The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite’s L-band (1.4 GHz) measurements have been used to retrieve Snow thickness over thick sea Ice in a previous study. Here we consider brightness temperature simulations for 2.5–4.5m thick Arctic multi-year Ice and compare the results of the relatively simple emission model (M2013) used previously for the retrieval with simulations from a more complex model (T2011) that combines a sea-Ice version of the Microwave Emission Model for Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS) with a thermodynamic model. We find that L-band brightness temperature is mainly determined by Ice temperature. In the M2013 model, Ice temperature in turn is mainly determined by surface temperature and Snow thickness, and this dependence has been used previously to explain the potential for a Snow thickness retrieval. Our comparisons suggest that the M2013 retrieval model may benefit from a more sophisticated thermodynamic calculation of the Ice temperature or from using independent temperature data (e.g. from 6 GHz channels). In both models, horizontally polarized brightness temperatures increase with Snow thickness while holding surface temperature, Ice thickness and Snow density near constant. The increase in the T2011 model is steeper than in M2013, suggesting a higher sensitivity to Snow thickness than found earlier.
To study the interactive influence of implanted nano platinum black electrodes (as compared with pure platinum electrodes) on rabbit orbicularis oculi muscle morphology and function.
The influence of the two types of electrode on the orbicularis oculi muscle was monitored in a rabbit model of facial paralysis. Biological electric current and exciting current were administered to biological tissue, and morphological and functional changes were identified. Changes in orbicularis oculi muscle contraction, electrode configuration and performance associated with long-term electrical stimulation were observed over 28 days of implantation.
The nano platinum black electrode was superior to the pure platinum electrode in the following aspects: morphology and functionality, electrical excitation function of the orbicularis oculi muscle (as assessed by electromyography), muscle contraction function and biological tissue changes. Furthermore, the nano platinum black electrode features had good stability.
Microelectrode surface modification with nano platinum black can effectively increase the microelectrode surface area and improve electrode performance, and is associated with good tissue compatibility.