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This study examined the effectiveness of a formal postdoctoral education program designed to teach skills in clinical and translational science, using scholar publication rates as a measure of research productivity.
Participants included 70 clinical fellows who were admitted to a master’s or certificate training program in clinical and translational science from 1999 to 2015 and 70 matched control peers. The primary outcomes were the number of publications 5 years post-fellowship matriculation and time to publishing 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts post-matriculation.
Clinical and translational science program graduates published significantly more peer-reviewed manuscripts at 5 years post-matriculation (median 8 vs 5, p=0.041) and had a faster time to publication of 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts (matched hazard ratio = 2.91, p=0.002). Additionally, program graduates’ publications yielded a significantly higher average H-index (11 vs. 7, p=0.013).
These findings support the effectiveness of formal training programs in clinical and translational science by increasing academic productivity.
We compared accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C ages of large (>150 μm) pelagic foraminifera with radiometric bulk carbonate 14C ages in two northeastern Atlantic cores. The foraminiferal ages are consistently older than those of the bulk sediment (by + 0.76 ka in Core 11881 and by + 1.1 ka in Core 11886), whereas corresponding fine (<5 μm) fraction ages are similar to those of the bulk sediment carbonate. We calculated near-identical sediment accumulation rates from both the foraminiferal and bulk sediment age/depth relations (3.0 cm ka−1 in Core 11881 and 5.9 cm ka−1 in Core 11886). Consideration of various factors that might produce such offsets leads us to believe that they are not artifacts, but were most probably caused by differential bioturbation of the different size-fractions in the sediment surface mixed layer. The importance of this finding is that many paleoceanographic records, such as the oxygen isotope record, also derive from analyses of large foraminifera, so that these records must be offset in time from the bulk of the sediments that they characterize.
In recent years, the most common technique for radiocarbon dating of deep-ocean sediments has been accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis of hand-picked planktonic foraminifera (forams). Some studies have exposed age offsets between different sediment size fractions from the same depth within a core and this has important implications when establishing a chronological framework for palaeoceanographic records associated with a particular sediment component. The mechanisms generating the age offsets are not fully understood, a problem compounded by the fact that the fraction defined as “large” varies between different studies. To explore this problem, we dated samples of hand-picked forams from two Biogeochemical Ocean Flux Study (BOFS) cores, for which the presence of an offset between the bulk carbonate and >150 μm foraminiferal calcite had already been demonstrated. The presence of a constant age offset between bulk carbonate and coarse fraction material at the two BOFS sites has been confirmed, but the magnitude of the offset is dependent on whether a simple size-separation technique or hand-picking of well-preserved forams is applied. This may be explained if the selection of well preserved forams biases the sample towards those specimens that have spent least time in the surface mixed layer (SML) or have undergone less size selective mixing. Modeling of the 14C profiles demonstrates that SML depth and sediment accumulation rates are the same for both the bulk and coarse sediment fractions, which is consistent with the hypothesis that size-selective mixing is responsible for the age offset.
Pollack et al. [Icarus 19, 372 (1973)] have reported the optical constants for obsidian, basalt, andesite and basaltic glass over the wavelength range 0.2 to 50 μm, and Lamy [Icarus 34, 68 (1978)] reported the optical constants from 0.10 to 0.44 μ for obsidian, basalt, and basaltic glass. We have revised the former measurements for basaltic glass and extended them into the extreme UV to 0.0173 μ.
Coping skills provide a resource for tackling stress in everyday situations, including those relating to parenting. The aim of this article is to establish whether parents who experienced a 10-hour universal social emotional parenting program — Families Coping (FC) — benefit through increased productive coping strategies, decreased nonproductive coping strategies, and increased parent wellbeing, within a positive parenting framework. It is also of interest to see whether gender and/or partner attendance makes a difference in program outcomes such as coping styles and wellbeing. The data set combined two groups of parents (N = 23) of preschool-aged children from an early learning centre in inner-metropolitan Melbourne in 2013 and 2014 who undertook the FC parenting program. A mixed methods design was employed, where parents completed pre- and post-program questionnaires on coping and wellbeing. Results were considered with respect to gender and partner attendance. A one-way repeated-measures multiple analysis of variance (RM-MANOVA) showed a significant increase in one productive parenting style (Dealing with the Problem), a significant decrease in nonproductive parent coping, and a significant increase in parent wellbeing. Comparison of results between gender and partner attendance groups showed minimal differences in program effectiveness. Qualitative data mostly confirmed the key findings.
The temperature, surface gravity, and abundances derived for this halo B star by Danziger and Jura (1970, Ap.J., 161, 997) show that it is a field suprahorizontal branch star very similar to B29 in M13. The only difference is that HD137569 has a higher (solar) C abundance. We find that HD137569 is a spectroscopic binary with P=529.8(2) days, Vo=45.0(2) km/s, K=16.2(3) km/s, e=0.12(2), ω=233°(10), and T=JD2441922(14). The parenthesized quantities are the uncertainties (probable errors) of the last digits of the elements.
GaN films have been grown on 6H-SiC substrates employing a new form of selective lateral epitaxy, namely pendeo-epitaxy. This technique forces regrowth to start exclusively on sidewalls of GaN seed structures. Both discrete pendeo-epitaxial microstructures and coalesced single crystal layers of GaN have been achieved. SEM and TEM analysis are used to evaluate the morphology of the resulting GaN films. Process routes leading to GaN pendeo-epitaxial growth using silicon substrates have also been achieved and the preliminary results are discussed.
Pendeo-epitaxy of individual GaN and AlxGa12−xN films and single- and multi-layer heterostructures of these materials have been achieved on a columnar GaN seed layer using metallorganic vapor phase epitaxy. These structures have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The RMS roughness value of the grown side wall plane (110) of these structures was 0.099 nm.
Pendeo-epitaxy is a type of selective growth of thin films from the sidewalls of etched forms. The resulting films are suspended from the sidewalls and do not interface with the substrate. This process route has advantages over conventional lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) techniques. In this research, pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN films has been achieved on elongated GaN seed columns. The seed columns were etched from GaN grown on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates via metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Silicon nitride mask layers atop the GaN seed columns forced growth from the sidewalls. Pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN was investigated using several growth temperatures. Higher growth temperatures resulted in improved coalescence due to greater lateral to vertical growth ratios.
Single crystalline (0001) gallium nitride layers were implanted with beryllium and subsequently annealed within the range of 300-1100 °C for 10-60 minutes under a flux of atomic nitrogen obtained using a rf plasma source. The nitrogen flux protected the GaN surface from decomposition in vacuum at high temperatures. SIMS measurements revealed that no long range diffusion of the implanted Be occurred at 900 or 1100 °C. XRD spectra showed defect-related peaks in the as-implanted samples; these peaks disappeared upon annealing at 900 °C and higher for 10 minutes. Photoluminescence (PL) easurements showed one new line at 3.35 eV which provided strong evidence for the presence of optically active Be acceptors.
Binocular rivalry (BR) is an intriguing phenomenon that occurs when two different images are presented, one to each eye, resulting in alternation or rivalry between the percepts. The phenomenon has been studied for nearly 200 years, with renewed and intensive investigation over recent decades. The rate of perceptual switching has long been known to vary widely between individuals but to be relatively stable within individuals. A recent twin study demonstrated that individual variation in BR rate is under substantial genetic control, a finding that also represented the first report, using a large study, of genetic contribution for any post-retinal visual processing phenomenon. The twin study had been prompted by earlier work showing BR rate was slow in the heritable psychiatric condition, bipolar disorder (BD). Together, these studies suggested that slow BR may represent an endophenotype for BD, and heralded the advent of modern clinical and genetic studies of rivalry. This new focus has coincided with rapid advances in 3D display technology, but despite such progress, specific development of technology for rivalry research has been lacking. This review therefore compares different display methods for BR research across several factors, including viewing parameters, image quality, equipment cost, compatibility with other investigative methods, subject group, and sample size, with a focus on requirements specific to large-scale clinical and genetic studies. It is intended to be a resource for investigators new to BR research, such as clinicians and geneticists, and to stimulate the development of 3D display technology for advancing interdisciplinary studies of rivalry.
The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the value of whole genome sequencing (WGS) compared to conventional typing methods in the investigation and control of an outbreak of Shigella sonnei in the Orthodox Jewish (OJ) community in the UK. The genome sequence analysis showed that the strains implicated in the outbreak formed three phylogenetically distinct clusters. One cluster represented cases associated with recent exposure to a single strain, whereas the other two clusters represented related but distinct strains of S. sonnei circulating in the OJ community across the UK. The WGS data challenged the conclusions drawn during the initial outbreak investigation and allowed cases of dysentery to be implicated or ruled out of the outbreak that were previously misclassified. This study showed that the resolution achieved using WGS would have clearly defined the outbreak, thus facilitating the promotion of infection control measures within local schools and the dissemination of a stronger public health message to the community.
We report a unique case of traumatic tympanic membrane perforation caused by a needlefish beak. We describe the mechanism of injury, the clinical findings and the treatment.
An 11-year-old boy presented with otorrhoea and hearing loss secondary to a traumatic tympanic membrane perforation by a needlefish. The perforation was repaired by performing a myringoplasty, with satisfactory post-operative audiological results.
To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of its kind. It is recommended that careful examination of the middle-ear space should always be carried out prior to and during myringoplasty if there is a possibility of a foreign body.
The influence of the microstructure and the misorientation relationship of grains on mechanical properties is investigated in specimens of ultrafine-grained copper processed by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) route Bc for 1, 4 and 12 passes. XRD texture analyses have shown that the major texture component is developed during the first pass of ECAE, and remains approximately constant with greater number of passes. EBSD measurements indicate that the majority of grain boundaries are still of low angle (>15°), while after four and twelve passes more than 50 % of all boundaries are high angle ones. TEM analyses have shown that the microstructure evolves from microbands and elongated cells towards a more equiaxed homogenous microstructure. On the microscale observed by TEM the degree of misorientation among subgrains/cells increases and the width of boundaries decreases while the cell/subgrain size remains approximately constant as the number of passes increases. The mechanical properties show a saturation level with a maximum in the yield stress and UTS after 4 passes. The strength of the material decreases between the fourth and the twelfth passes and the uniform elongation increases. It is suggested that the increase in ductility (and decrease in strength) is associated with the decrease in width of boundaries leading to an increase in the mean free path of dislocations.
Batch experiments, mineralogical studies, and geochemical modeling were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of sphagnum peat, calcium carbonate, and hydrated lime in removing dissolved concentrations of As, Mo, NO3, and U present in uranium-tailings pore water at Gunnison, Colorado. Amounts of As, Mo, and U removal by sphagnum peat, calcium carbonate, and hydrated lime at 5.0, 2.5, and 2.5 wt.%, respectively, were typically above 97 %. Nitrate removal ranged between 55 and 80 %. Significant contaminant removal was achieved by sphagnum peat alone at pH 3.18. Addition of 2.5 wt.% calcium carbonate to the sphagnum peat-tailings system resulted in formation of soluble uranyl carbonato complexes, which decreased the amount of U(VI) fixed onto sphagnum peat by a factor of 2. Addition of 2.5 wt.% hydrated lime to the acidic tailings increased Mo concentrations by a factor of 2 under moderately alkaline conditions (pH 12). During neutralization of tailings-pore water, precipitation of ferric oxyhydroxides may provide additional removal of As, Mo, and U(VI) from solution through adsorption and coprecipitation processes.