A nanocomposite resist system that incorporates sub-nm fullerene molecules ( C60 and/or C70) into a conventional resist material is proposed for nanolithograpy. Fullerene has physically and chemically resistant characteristics, and its incorporation reinforces the original resist film, leading to substantial improvements in resist performance: etching resistance, pattern contrast, mechanical strength and thermal resistance. We have prepared a system composed of a positive-type electron beam resist, ZEP520, and C60 or a C60/C70 mixture and through the fabrication of high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), X-ray masks, and groove-grating mirrors for lasers with nanometer dimensions confirmed improved resist performance, particularly resolution improvements due to enhanced etching resistance. By making use of a characteristic unique to the nanocomposite, which is that sensitivity readily changes with the fullerene content due to a dissolution inhibiting effect of fullerene, we have constructed a fullerene-incorporated bilayer resist system for a lift-off process and have successfully fabricated a highly-ordered array of self-organized boxlike nanostructures and a mold for nanoprinting. Further, solubility enhancement by fullerene derivatives has been examined for a higher degree of fullerene incorporation and better sensitivity characteristics in future nanocomposite resist systems.