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With respect to human health, nutritional guidelines emphasise on increasing the ratio poly-unsaturated/saturated fatty acids (P/S) (> 0.7) and reducing the n-6/n-3 ratio (< 5). Beef is generally characterised by a low P/S ratio (0.1), while the n-6/n-3 ratio may vary between 2 and 10 depending on the feeding strategy. Hence, the provision of n-3 fatty acids by the diet is crucial for optimising the fatty acid composition of meat. However, PUFA are hydrolysed and subsequently hydrogenated in the rumen to more saturated fatty acids and intermediates that are absorbed from the intestinal tract and transported to the tissues. Lipolysis and hydrogenation may thus affect the meat fatty acid composition. For ruminants, important sources of linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) are linseed and fresh grass. Prior to use in animal nutrition, linseed needs physical treatment like extrusion or crushing. The aim of the present in vitro experiment was to study lipolysis and biohydrogenation of linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and C18:3n-3 in fresh grass and extruded or crushed linseed products.
Classical Cepheids (hereafter Cepheids) are important standard candle as they obey the famous period-luminosity (PL) relation. Parallax measurements from Gaia offer a unique opportunity to derive or calibrate the PL relations for Galactic Cepheids, as traditionally their distances were measured via different methods. In this work, we attempted to derive the Gaia G-band PL relation based on the Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) measurements. We adopted the inferred distances provided by Astraatmadja & Bailer-Jones (2016), calculated using two priors in a Bayesian analysis, and cross-matched to known Galactic Cepheids. The resulting G-band PL relation, however, exhibits a much larger scatter than expected. Hence the inferred distances based on the Gaia DR1 parallaxes are not suitable for calibrating the Galactic PL relation, and future Data Releases with improved parallax measurements are desirable.
Improving neurocognitive outcomes following treatment for brain metastases have become increasingly important. We propose that a brief telephone-based neurocognitive assessment may improve follow-up cognitive assessments in this palliative population. Aim: To prospectively assess the feasibility and reliability of a telephone based brief neurocognitive assessment compared to the same tests delivered face-to-face. Methods: Brain metastases patients to be treated with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) were assessed using a brief validated neurocognitive battery at baseline, at 1 month and 3 months following WBRT (in person and over the phone). The primary outcome was feasibility and inter-procedural (in person versus telephone) reliability. The secondary objective was to evaluate the change in neurocognitive function before and after WBRT. Results: Out of 39 patients enrolled, 82% of patients completed the baseline in-person and telephone neurocognitive assessments. However, at 1 month, only 41% of enrolled patients completed the in-person and telephone cognitive assessments and at 3 months, only 10% of patients completed them. Results pertaining to reliability and change in neurocognitive function will be updated. Conclusion: The pre-defined definition of feasibility (at least 80% completion for face to face and telephone neurocognitive assessments) was met at baseline. However, a large proportion of participants did not complete either telephone or in person neurocognitive follow-up at 1 month and at 3 months post-WBRT. Attrition remained a challenge for neurocognitive testing in this population even when a telephone-based brief assessment was used.
This article reviews and reflects on the use of the geographic information system (GIS) as a tool, or geographic information science (GIScience) as a research methodology, and associated techniques of analysis in an empirical study-in-progress on the law and history of early twentieth century British Hong Kong. The article begins by introducing the study and its objectives, as well as the rationale for adopting GIS/GIScience as one of its research methodologies. It then highlights the preliminary findings of the current project and compares them with those of earlier research on the legal history of early twentieth century Beijing using GIS. The article also discusses the difficulties involved in adopting such a digital tool and methodology in historical research. It concludes by reflecting on what GIS can help scholars understand about the social history of law in Hong Kong, beyond what is already known, and how specialists in law, history, and geography can collaborate in a digital law and history project involving the use of GIS. This article also gives an overview of the use of GIS in conducting empirical research in the humanities (including but not limited to history and legal history research) and points to digital sources and web sites useful to researchers who may need tools and data to launch a GIS study in law and history.
Background: The Flow diversion in the treatment of Intracranial Aneurysm (FIAT) trial was designed to guide the clinical use of flow diversion. Methods: FIAT proposed randomized allocation flow diversion or standard management (observation, coiling, parent vessel occlusion, or clipping), and a registry of non-randomized patients treated with flow diversion. Primary safety outcome was death or dependency (mRS > 2) at 3 months. Primary efficacy outcome was angiographic occlusion at 3-12 months combined with independent clinical outcome. Results: Of 112 participating patients recruited, 78 were randomized, and 34 received flow diversion within the registry. The study was halted for safety concerns. Twelve of 73 patients (16.4%; CI [9.7% -26.7%]) who were allocated or received flow diversion at any time were dead (n=8) or dependent (n=4) at 3 months or more, crossing a predefined safety boundary. Death or dependency occurred in 5 of 36 patients randomly allocated flow diversion and in 5 of 36 patients allocated standard treatment (13.9%; [6.1%-28.7%]). Efficacy was below hypothesized expectations: 15 of 36 patients (41.7%; [27.1%-57.8%]) randomly allocated flow diversion failed to reach the primary outcome, as compared to 11 of 36 patients allocated standard treatment (30.1%; [18.0%-46.9%]). Conclusions: Flow diversion was not as safe and effective as hypothesized. More randomized trials are needed.
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) with diverse multilocus sequence typing emerged among our nursing home residents (6.5%) with a high background rate of MRSA (32.2%). Rectal swabs yielded a higher rate of CRAB detection than axillary or nasal swabs. Bed-bound status, use of adult diapers, and nasogastric tube were risk factors for CRAB colonization.
Chinese psychiatrists have gradually started to focus on those who are deemed to be at ‘clinical high-risk (CHR)’ for psychosis; however, it is still unknown how often those individuals identified as CHR from a different country background than previously studied would transition to psychosis. The objectives of this study are to examine baseline characteristics and the timing of symptom onset, help-seeking, or transition to psychosis over a 2-year period in China.
The presence of CHR was determined with the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) at the participants' first visit to the mental health services. A total of 86 (of 117) CHR participants completed the clinical follow-up of at least 2 years (73.5%). Conversion was determined using the criteria of presence of psychotic symptoms (in SIPS). Analyses examined baseline demographic and clinical predictors of psychosis and trajectory of symptoms over time. Survival analysis (Kaplan–Meier) methods along with Log-rank tests were performed to illustrate the relationship of baseline data to either conversion or non-conversion over time. Cox regression was performed to identify baseline predictors of conversion by the 2-year follow-up.
In total 25 (29.1%) of 86 completers transitioned to a psychotic disorder over the course of follow-up. Among the CHR sample, the mean time between attenuated symptom onset and professional help-seeking was about 4 months on average, and converters developed fully psychotic symptoms about 12 months after symptom onset. Compared with those CHR participants whose risk syndromes remitted over the course of the study, converters had significantly longer delays (p = 0.029) for their first visit to a professional in search of help. At baseline assessment, the conversion subgroup was younger, had poorer functioning, higher total SIPS positive symptom scores, longer duration of untreated prodromal symptoms, and were more often given psychosis-related diagnoses and subsequently prescribed antipsychotics in the clinic.
Chinese CHR identified primarily by a novel clinical screening approach had a 2-year transition rate comparable with those of specialised help-seeking samples world-wide. Early clinical intervention with this functionally deteriorating clinical population who are suffering from attenuated psychotic symptoms, is a next step in applying the CHR construct in China.
The Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU) is a proposed radio continuum survey
of the Southern Hemisphere up to declination + 30°, with the Australian
Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). EMU will use an automated source
identification and measurement approach that is demonstrably optimal, to
maximise the reliability and robustness of the resulting radio source
catalogues. As a step toward this goal we conducted a “Data
Challenge” to test a variety of source finders on simulated images. The
aim is to quantify the accuracy and limitations of existing automated source
finding and measurement approaches. The Challenge initiators also tested the
current ASKAPsoft source-finding tool to establish how it could benefit from
incorporating successful features of the other tools. As expected, most finders
show completeness around 100% at ≈ 10σ dropping to about 10% by
≈ 5σ. Reliability is typically close to 100% at ≈
10σ, with performance to lower sensitivities varying between finders. All
finders show the expected trade-off, where a high completeness at low
signal-to-noise gives a corresponding reduction in reliability, and vice versa.
We conclude with a series of recommendations for improving the performance of
the ASKAPsoft source-finding tool.
The role of routine intra-operative parathyroid hormone monitoring for sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism is contentious. Satisfactory results can be achieved in high-volume centres. The results of low-volume hospitals are rarely studied.
A retrospective, non-comparative study was conducted. From November 2002 to October 2012, 105 patients with clinically sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism underwent focused parathyroidectomy without intra-operative parathyroid hormone monitoring. Single adenoma was localised on pre-operative ultrasonography or sestamibi scan. The cure rate, surgical complication rate and pathology findings were evaluated.
Most of the operations (63.8 per cent) were performed under local anaesthesia. All but two patients (98.1 per cent) were cured after surgery. There was only one case of double adenomas. No recurrent hyperparathyroidism was observed after a mean follow up of 56.9 months. Surgical complications comprised two cases (1.9 per cent) of transient vocal fold palsy and one case (1.0 per cent) of permanent vocal fold palsy. Seven patients (6.7 per cent) suffered temporary hypocalcaemia.
Satisfactory results of focused parathyroidectomy without routine intra-operative parathyroid hormone monitoring for appropriately selected primary hyperparathyroidism cases can be attained in a low-volume hospital.
The rapid rise in syphilis cases has prompted a number of public health campaigns to assist men who have sex with men (MSM) recognize and present early with symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the temporal trend of the duration of self-report symptoms and titre of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) in MSM with infectious syphilis. Seven hundred and sixty-one syphilis cases in MSM diagnosed at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) from 2007–2013 were reviewed. Median duration of symptoms and RPR titres in each year were calculated. The median durations of symptoms with primary and secondary syphilis were 9 [interquartile range (IQR) 6–14] days and 14 (IQR 7–30) days, respectively. The overall median titre of RPR in secondary syphilis (median 128, IQR 64–256) was higher than in primary syphilis (median 4, IQR 1–32) and in early latent syphilis (median 32, IQR 4–64). The median duration of symptoms for primary syphilis, secondary syphilis and titre of RPR level did not change over time. Public health campaigns were not associated with a significant shorter time from onset of symptoms to treatment. Alternative strategies such as more frequent testing of MSM should be promoted to control the syphilis epidemic in Australia.
There is little known regarding the transmissibility of human papillomavirus (HPV) between different sites in men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual individuals. We conducted a retrospective analysis investigating all new patients attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in Australia between 2002 and 2013. We describe the prevalence and ratio of the first episode of anogenital warts in MSM and heterosexual males and females. The proportion of new MSM clients with anal and penile warts was 4·0% (362/8978) and 1·6% (141/8978), respectively; which gave an anal-to-penile wart ratio of 1:2·6. About 13·7% (1656/12112) of heterosexual males had penile warts and 10·0% (1121/11166) of females had vulval warts, which yielded a penile-to-vulval wart ratio of 1:0·7. Penile–anal transmission has a higher ratio than penile–vulval transmission, suggesting that the anal epithelium may be more susceptible to HPV infection than the vulval epithelium in females; these ratios are important in modelling the control of HPV in MSM.
The in vitro effect of cadmium (Cd) on apical segments of Pterocladiella capillacea was examined. Over a period of 7 days, the segments were cultivated with the combination of different salinities (25, 35, and 45 practical salinity units) and Cd concentrations, ranging from 0.17 to 0.70 ppm. The effects of Cd on growth rates and content of photosynthetic pigments were analyzed. In addition, metabolic profiling was performed, and samples were processed for microscopy. Serious damage to physiological performance and ultrastructure was observed under different combinations of Cd concentrations and salinity values. Elementary infrared spectroscopy revealed toxic effects registered on growth rate, photosynthetic pigments, chloroplast, and mitochondria organization, as well as changes in lipids and carbohydrates. These alterations in physiology and ultrastructure were, however, coupled to activation of such defense mechanisms as cell wall thickness, reduction of photosynthetic harvesting complex, and flavonoid. In conclusion, P. capillacea is especially sensitive to Cd stress when intermediate concentrations of this pollutant are associated with low salinity values. Such conditions resulted in metabolic compromise, reduction of primary productivity, i.e., photosynthesis, and carbohydrate accumulation in the form of starch granules. Taken together, these findings improve our understanding of the potential impact of this metal in the natural environment.
Daptomycin-non-susceptible enterococci (DNSE) are emerging pathogens. We have previously reported de novo DNSE isolates in patients with agricultural activities and exposure to livestock. We studied the geographical distribution of the residencies of 34 patients with DNSE infections described in a tertiary centre over a 5-year period in an effort to explore the association between patients’ residential locations and agricultural and farm lands. Nine patients had no prior exposure to daptomycin (de novo) and seven of these lived in areas with animal or crop operations. Of those living near an animal or crop operation, the mean number of operations in the proximity of the residence of patients with daptomycin-exposed DNSE was 13·8 (range 1–67) compared to 98·6 (3–529) for those patients with de novo DNSE (P = 0·0486). These data are consistent with previous reports that the transport of daptomycin resistance genes between animals and humans may be a possible mechanism for development of de novo daptomycin resistance in enterococci.
The effect of lead and copper on apical segments of Gracilaria domingensis was examined. Over a period of 7 days, the segments were cultivated with concentrations of 5 and 10 ppm under laboratory conditions. The samples were processed for light, confocal, and electron microscopy, as well as histochemistry, to evaluate growth rates, mitochondrial activity, protein levels, chlorophyll a, phycobiliproteins, and carotenoids. After 7 days of exposure to lead and copper, growth rates were slower than control, and biomass loss was observed on copper-treated plants. Ultrastructural damage was primarily observed in the internal organization of chloroplasts and cell wall thickness. X-ray microanalysis detected lead in the cell wall, while copper was detected in both the cytoplasm and cell wall. Moreover, lead and copper exposure led to photodamage of photosynthetic pigments and, consequently, changes in photosynthesis. However, protein content and glutathione reductase activity decreased only in the copper treatments. In both treatments, decreased mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase activity was observed. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that (1) heavy metals such as lead and copper negatively affect various morphological, physiological, and biochemical processes in G. domingensis and (2) copper is more toxic than lead in G. domingensis.
An enormous effort is underway worldwide to attempt to detect gravitational waves. If successful, this will open a new frontier in astronomy. An essential portion of this effort is being carried out in Australia by the Australian Consortium for Interferometric Gravitational Astronomy (ACIGA), with research teams working at the Australia National University, University of Western Australia, and University of Adelaide involving scientists and students representing many more institutions and nations. ACIGA is developing ultrastable high-power continuous-wave lasers for the next generation interferometric gravity wave detectors; researching the problems associated with high optical power in resonant cavities; opening frontiers in advanced interferometry configurations, quantum optics, and signal extraction; and is the world's leader in high-performance vibration isolation and suspension design. ACIGA has also been active in theoretical research and modelling of potential astronomical gravitational wave sources, and in developing data analysis detection algorithms. ACIGA has opened a research facility north of Perth, Western Australia, which will be the culmination of these efforts. This paper briefly reviews ACIGA's research activities and the prospects for gravitational wave astronomy in the southern hemisphere.
We have examined spectrally resolved photoconductivity and photoluminescence from InAs/Ga1–xInxSb strained-layer superlattices, which have been proposed as infrared detectors in the 8-14 μm region. Our measurements indicate that the energy gaps of the strained–layer superlattices are substantially smaller than those of InAs/GaSb superlattices with similar layer thicknesses, in agreement with previous theoretical predictions. Measurements on InAs/Ga1–xInxSb superlattices with x=0 and 0.25 and layer thicknesses of 25 – 45 A indicate superlattice band gaps of 3 – 15 μm, in excellent agreement with gaps calculated by a two band k · p model. Our results demonstrate that far-infrared energy gaps are compatible with the thin layers necessary for strong optical absorption in type-IT superlattices, and suggest that InAs/Ga1–xInxSb superlattices are promising candidates for far-infrared detection.
We have analyzed photoluminescence spectra from CdxZnl−xTe /ZnTe and ZnSexTel−x/ZnTe strained layer superlattices grown by MBE, and obtained the band offsets by fitting to theory. We find that the valence band offset of the CdTe/ZnTe system is quite small (-50± 160 meV). In CdxZnl−xTe /ZnTe superlattices, the electrons and heavy holes are confined in the CdxZn1−xTe layers (type I), while the light holes are confined in the ZnTe layers (type II). On the other hand, the photoluminescence data from the ZnSexTe1−x /ZnTe superlattices suggest that the band alignment is type II, with a large valence band offset (−907 ± 120 meV). We also investigated the band bowing in the ZnSexTel−x alloys by optical spectroscopy, and found that there is only a small component of bowing in the valence band, while most of the bowing occurs in the conduction band. Based on our results for band alignments, we evaluate the prospects for minority carrier injection in wide bandgap heterostructures based on ZnSe, ZnTe, and CdTe.
Little has been published about Te-rich ZnSexTel−x grown at low temperatures, in spite of some successes in the fabrication of wide band gap light emitting devices from ZnSeTe alloys grown at higher temperatures. We present x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) spectra for ZnSeTe epilayers and ZnSeTe/ZnTe superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). These we compare with measurements on ZnTe, ZnSe and CdZnTe epilayers and on CdZnTe/ZnTe superlattices grown under similar conditions and also with data published for ZnSeTe alloys grown at high temperatures. Equilibrium phase diagrams for the ZnSeTe alloy system suggest a large miscibility gap at MBE growth temperatures; this may account for some unusual features in the (PL) spectra and for large line widths in the x-ray data. In spite of these possible miscibility problems, we find that ZnSeTe alloys luminesce brightly.