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The time-varying flow in which fluid is withdrawn from or added to a reservoir of infinite or arbitrary finite depth through a point sink or source of variable strength beneath a free surface is considered. Backed up by some analytic work, a numerical method is used, and the results are compared with previous work on steady and unsteady flows. In the case of withdrawal for an impulsively started flow, it is found that the critical flow rate increases with reservoir depth, although it changes little as the depth increases beyond double the sink submergence depth. The largest flow rate at which steady solutions can evolve in source flows follows a similar pattern although at a considerably higher value. Simulations indicate that some of the previously calculated steady state solutions at higher flow rates may be unstable, if they exist at all.
Rapidly-flowing ice streams are an important mechanism through which ice sheets lose mass, and much work has been focussed on elucidating the processes that increase or decrease their velocity. Recent work using standard inverse methods has inferred previously-unrecognised regular patterns of high basal shear stress (‘sticky spots’ >200 kPa) beneath a number of ice streams in Antarctica and Greenland, termed ‘traction ribs’. They appear at a scale intermediate between smaller ribbed moraines and much larger mega-ribs observed on palaeo-ice sheet beds, but it is unclear whether they have a topographic expression at the bed. Here, we report observations of rib-like bedforms from DEMs along palaeo-ice stream beds in western Canada that resemble both the pattern and dimensions of traction ribs. Their identification suggests that traction ribs may have a topographic expression that lies between, and partly overlaps with, ribbed moraines and much larger mega-ribs. These intermediate-sized bedforms support the notion of a ribbed bedform continuum. Their formation remains conjectural, but our observations from palaeo-ice streams, coupled with those from modern ice masses, suggest they are related to wave-like instabilities occurring in the coupled flow of ice and till and modulated by subglacial meltwater drainage. Their form and pattern may also involve glaciotectonism of subglacial sediments.
The steady, axisymmetric flow induced by a point sink (or source) submerged in an inviscid fluid of infinite depth is computed and the resulting deformation of the free surface is obtained. The effect of surface tension on the free surface is determined and is the new component of this work. The maximum Froude numbers at which steady solutions exist are computed. It is found that the determining factor in reaching the critical flow changes as more surface tension is included. If there is zero or a very small amount of surface tension, the limiting factor appears to be the formation of small wavelets on the free surface; but, as the surface tension increases, this is replaced by a tendency for the lowest point on the free surface to descend sharply as the Froude number is increased.
Manganese incorporation in synthetic hercynite, and partitioning between hercynite and silicate melt synthesized at 1.0 GPa, 1250°C, and at an fO2 buffered by Fe–FeO, has been studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray structure refinement. Spectra indicate the presence of both Mn2+ and Mn3+ (and possibly also Mn4+) in synthetic hercynite and partitioning of Mn2+ into the melt phase, and Mn3+ into hercynite, respectively, under run conditions. X-ray refinement is consistent with partial disorder of Fe and Al across tetrahedral and octahedral sites. A higher than expected degree of Fe-Al disorder in the Mn-bearing hercynite can be explained by preferential incorporation of Mn2+ onto the tetrahedral site, and indicates that Fe-Al disorder in pure, stoichiometric hercynite cannot necessarily be used to determine closure temperatures in natural spinel. However, partitioning of Mn2+ and Mn3+ between melt and hercynite suggests that Mn incorporation in hercynite could be used as a measure of fO2 conditions in magmas during spinel crystallization.
The steady, axisymmetric flow induced by a point sink (or source) submerged in an
unbounded inviscid fluid is computed. The resulting deformation of the free surface
is obtained, and a limit of steady solutions is found that is quite different to
those obtained in past work. More accurate solutions indicate that the old limiting
flow rate was too high and, in fact, the breakdown of steady solutions at a lower
flow rate is characterized by the appearance of spurious wavelets at the free
Blue light-emitting diodes (LED's), utilizing InGaN-based multi-quantum well (MQW) active regions deposited by organometallic chemical vapor epitaxy (OMVPE), are one of the fundamental building-blocks for current solid-state lighting applications. Studies [1,2] have previously been conducted to explore the optical and physical properties of the active MQW's over a variety of different OMVPE growth conditions. However, the conclusions of these papers have often been contradictory, possibly due to a limited data set or lack of understanding of the fundamental fluid dynamics and gas-phase chemistry that occurs during the deposition process.
Multi-quantum well structures grown over a range of pressures from typical low-pressure production processes at 200 Torr, up to near-atmospheric growth conditions at 700 Torr, have been investigated in this study. At all growth pressures, clear trends of gas-phase chemical reactions are observed for increased gas residence times (lower gas speeds from the injector flange and lower rotation rates) and increased V/III ratios (higher NH3 flows).
Confocal microscopy, excitation-dependent PL (PLE), and time-resolved photo-luminescence (TRPL) have been employed on these MQW structures to investigate the carrier lifetime characteristics. Confocal emission images show spatially-separated bright and dark regions. The bright regions are red-shifted in wavelength relative to the dark regions, suggesting microscopic spatial localization of high indium content regions. As the growth pressure and gas residence times are reduced, a larger difference in band-gap between bright and dark regions, longer lifetimes, and higher average PL intensities can be obtained, indicating that higher optical quality material can be realized. Optimized MQW's grown at high pressure exhibit higher PLE slope intensities and IQE characteristics than lower pressure samples. Results on simple LED structures indicate that the improvement in MQW optical quality at high pressures translates to higher output power at a 110 A/cm2 injection current density.
The steady axisymmetric flow induced by a ring sink (or source) submerged in an unbounded inviscid fluid is computed and the resulting deformation of the free surface is obtained. Solutions are obtained analytically in the limit of small Froude number (and hence small surface deformation) and numerically for the full nonlinear problem. The small Froude number solutions are found to have the property that if the non-dimensional radius of the ring sink is less than , there is a central stagnation point on the surface surrounded by a dip which rises to the stagnation level in the far distance. However, as the radius of the ring sink increases beyond , a surface stagnation ring forms and moves outward as the ring sink radius increases. It is also shown that as the radius of the sink increases, the solutions in the vicinity of the ring sink/source change continuously from those due to a point sink/source () to those due to a line sink/source (). These properties are confirmed by the numerical solutions to the full nonlinear equations for finite Froude numbers. At small values of the Froude number and sink or source radius, the nonlinear solutions look like the approximate solutions, but as the flow rate increases a limiting maximum Froude number solution with a secondary stagnation ring is obtained. At large values of sink or source radius, however, this ring does not form and there is no obvious physical reason for the limit on solutions. The maximum Froude numbers at which steady solutions exist for each radius are computed.
The carrier concentration and electronic transport properties in Bi2-xSbxTe3 alloy can be tuned by varying the Bi to Sb ratio, for high thermoelectric figure of merit. The concentration of intrinsic antisite defects in these alloys is also known to change with Bi to Sb ratio. Here we report the thermoelectric figure of merit of Sn doped Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 alloy. Different atomic percentages of Sn was substituted at Bi/Sb site in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 alloy, synthesized by planetary ball milling. The electrical conductivity decreases with increasing Sn doping but for higher Sn content the electrical conductivity increases compared to undoped alloy. The Seebeck coefficient changes in accordance to electrical conductivity, resulting in small decrease in power factor for highest Sn doping. The lattice thermal conductivity shows a systematic decrease, with increasing Sn concentration resulting in a significant thermal conductivity reduction. Hence an increase in thermoelectric figure of merit could be achieved for the highest Sn (3at%) doping in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 alloy as compared to undoped alloy.
The surrounding ambient introduces a gaseous boundary to many potential nanotechnology applications such as nanoscale thermoelectric devices and low dimensional thermal control devices. Despite the large surface area to volume ratio of nanostructures, a formal study of the surface scattering effects induced by a gaseous boundary has received little attention. In this work, we consider the perturbing effects to the electron cloud or jellium of conducting nanostructures when submitted to a gaseous interface of varying interaction energies. Specifically, we incorporate the novel experimental method of Dynamic Electron Scattering (DES) to measure the Seebeck coefficient of 30 nm thick Au and Cu metal films in He and Ar atmospheres. The gas particle impact energy is varied by changing the flow speed from stationary (non-moving gas field) to high speed flow over the metal films. The scattering effects of each gas are clearly observable through a Seebeck coefficient increase as the gas impact energy increases. We find the high collision density of He to induce a greater increase in thermopower than the much heavier Ar with lower collision density. The perturbed transport properties of the Au and Cu thin films are explained by kinetic surface scattering mechanisms that dominate the scattering landscape of high surface area to volume ratio materials as suggested by comparative measurements on bulk Cu.
Elevated striatal dopamine synthesis capacity is thought to be fundamental to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and has also been reported in people at risk of psychosis. It is therefore unclear if striatal hyperdopaminergia is a vulnerability marker for schizophrenia, or a state feature related to the psychosis itself. Relatives of patients with schizophrenia are themselves at increased risk of developing the condition. In this study we examined striatal dopamine synthesis capacity in both members of twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia.
In vivo striatal dopamine synthesis capacity was examined using fluorine-18-l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) scans in seven twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia and in a control sample of 10 healthy control twin pairs.
Striatal 18F-DOPA uptake was not elevated in the unaffected co-twins of patients with schizophrenia (p=0.65) or indeed in the twins with schizophrenia (p=0.89) compared to the control group. Levels of psychotic symptoms were low in the patients with schizophrenia who were in general stable [mean (s.d.) Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total=56.8 (25.5)] whereas the unaffected co-twins were largely asymptomatic.
Striatal dopamine synthesis capacity is not elevated in symptom-free individuals at genetic risk of schizophrenia, or in well-treated stable patients with chronic schizophrenia. These findings suggest that striatal hyperdopaminergia is not a vulnerability marker for schizophrenia.
Transmission electron microscope studies of Ti-doped, congruent lithium niobate (LiNbO3) have shown that extended structural faults are only present within the Ti diffused layer (i.e. the wave guiding region). Structural faults have not been observed in undoped control crystals of congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3. Therefore, it appears that the introduction of Ti is responsible for the formation of these defects. The chemical driving forces which may be controlling the formation of structural faults are discussed.
Diffraction contrast experiments, which have been interpreted in terms of two-beam dynamical theory for a centrosymmetric crystal, indicate that the faults are tensile in nature (i.e. formed by removing a plane of atoms – so-called intrinsic faults) and have a displacement vector of the type c/12/001] when indexed in the hexagonal coordinate system. That is, the displacement vector is along the c-axis. The detailed crystallographic character of the fault planes is not clear; both (118) and (1 1 12) planes have been confirmed from trace analyses and therefore the fault has a shear component. Additional contrast experiments will be required in order to clarify this feature of structural faults in Ti-doped LiNbO3.
Since the extent of these structural faults is tens of microns, they are clearly potential scattering sites for photons. In this regard, a systematic understanding of their origin and thermal stability is crucial to integrated optical device technologies based on LiNbO3 and on the Ti-doped waveguide fabrication technique.
The grain boundary chemistry of reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) and the effects of iron species and content on this chemistry are investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Data are reported for semiconductor grade RBSN, Fe-doped semiconductor grade RBSN, and metallurgical grade RBSN specimens. Results indicate that the grain boundaries have an elemental composition of Si, N, O, and C, with important chemical differences depending on the purity of the starting material. In the RBSN made from metallurgical grade silicon, the grain boundaries have a distinct “oxide-like” layer, with a subregion of Si3N4. No distinct oxide layer was observed in the RBSN made from semiconductor-grade silicon, where the O appears to be uniformly incorporated into the Si3N4.
Recent advances of glass materials and fabrication processes will be reviewed in the field of guided-wave technology. A variety of optical fibers and guided-wave devices are in development by using high-silica and non-silica glasses. Following the successful development of silica fiber, a new family of optical fibers is being investigated by using non-silica glasses such as fluoride and chalcogenide glasses, which operate at mid-infrared wavelength range and offer the potential of ultra-low loss. High-silica channel waveguides are fabricated by processing a SiO2TiO2 planer waveguide on a silicon substrate. These are applied to various guided wave optical circuits such as switch and wavelength-division multi/demultiplexer, which would be used for the construction of optical communication systems. The materials and processing techniques influencing optical guided-wave performance are described.
We have carried out x-ray scattering studies in melts of a series of linear polyisoprenes with highly polar sulfo-zwitterion groups at one end. The zwitterion end groups cause aggregation in good solvents for polyisoprene. The aggregation number depends strongly on the molecular weight of the polyisoprene tails and on the polarity of the solvent. Molecular mechanics simulations of the interactions between the zwitterion head groups suggest tubelike or diskline structures for the aggregates. Spherical structures are not energetically favorable. High resolution synchrotron x-ray scattering studies were carried out for six different (chain) molecular weights between 2000 and 23,000. For low molecular weights (between 2000 and 4000) a tubular structure is found with the tubes organized on a well-defined, two-dimensional triangular lattice with very large domain sizes >2000Å. A structural phase transition to a cubic (bcc) phase with long range order is observed to occur for molecular weights >10,000. The lattice spacing increase over the molecular range was between 95Å (for MW-2000) and 206Å (for MW-23,000). For the high molecular weight melts, annealing transforms the structure from (bcc) (with long range order) to an (fcc) disordered structure with short range order.
We present 195Pt NMR lineshapes as well as relaxation data in three different samples of platinum metal particles (46%, 26%, and 15% dispersion) supported on alumina. We show that the electronic properties of these particles are very much different from those of bulk Pt metal. A prominent peak in the lineshape has been identified as a “surface resonance” which arises from Pt nuclei on the surface of the Pt particles. We find that these surface Pt atoms are “nonmetallic” when coated with adsorbed molecules.
UNC Charlotte is a young and growing research university. Most of the Ph.D. programs on our campus have been designed to be interdisciplinary. This strategic choice was made for both economic and pedagogical reasons. At the heart of the drive for interdisciplinary degree programs is the recognition that a lack of educational diversity at the Ph.D. level is limiting for new graduates in today's research and discovery landscape. This need for educational diversity is even more acute in the sciences. We need more chemists that know more physics, and we need more physicists that know more biology, and we need more engineers that understand matter at a molecular scale.
To this end, faculty in the departments of chemistry, optical sciences, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering have designed and are implementing a new interdisciplinary Ph.D. degree in “Nanoscale Science”. Research involving nanoscale materials and phenomena requires an educational perspective far broader than traditional academic disciplines currently offer. The question is how to deliver a broad graduate education that enables each student to reach an expertise required for the Ph.D. This is the question that has driven our pedagogical development of this Nanoscale science program.
The overall structure of this program will be described and compared to other current efforts in Nanoscale graduate education throughout the United States. Various novel features will be discussed, with the hope for critical feedback and discussion. Details of the educational opportunities we have designed and the method of assessment we will employ will be presented.
The unsteady axisymmetric withdrawal from a fluid with a free surface through a point sink is considered. Results both with and without surface tension are included and placed in context with previous work. The results indicate that there are two critical values of withdrawal rate at which the surface is drawn directly into the outlet, one after flow initiation and the other after the flow has been established. It is shown that the larger of these values corresponds to the point at which steady solutions no longer exist.