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Poor cognitive abilities and low intellectual quotient (IQ) are associated with an increased risk of suicide attempts and suicide mortality. However, knowledge of how this association develops across the life-course is limited. Our study aims to establish whether individuals who died by suicide by mid-adulthood are distinguishable by their child-to-adolescence cognitive trajectories.
Participants were from the 1958 British Birth Cohort and were assessed for academic performance at ages 7, 11, and 16 and intelligence at 11 years. Suicides occurring by September 2012 were identified from linked national death certificates. We compared mean mathematics and reading abilities and rate of change across 7–16 years for individuals who died by suicide v. those still alive, with and without adjustment for potential early-life confounding factors. Analyses were based on 14 505 participants.
Fifty-five participants (48 males) had died by suicide by age 54 years. While males who died by suicide did not differ from participants still alive in reading scores at age 7 [effect size (g) = −0.04, p = 0.759], their reading scores had a less steep improvement up to age 16 compared to other participants. Adjustments for early-life confounding factors explained these differences. A similar pattern was observed for mathematics scores. There was no difference between individuals who died by suicide v. participants still alive on intelligence at 11 years.
While no differences in tests of academic performance and IQ were observed, individuals who died by suicide had a less steep improvement in reading abilities over time compared to same-age peers.
Accurate real-time simulations and forecasting of phase-revolved ocean surface waves require nonlinear effects, both geometrical and kinematic, to be accurately represented. For this purpose, wave models based on a Lagrangian steepness expansion have proved particularly efficient, as compared to those based on Eulerian expansions, as they feature higher-order nonlinearities at a reduced numerical cost. However, while they can accurately model the instantaneous nonlinear wave shape, Lagrangian models developed to date cannot accurately predict the time evolution of even simple periodic waves. Here, we propose a novel and simple method to perform a Lagrangian expansion of surface waves to second order in wave steepness, based on the dynamical system relating particle locations and the Eulerian velocity field. We show that a simple redefinition of reference particles allows us to correct the time evolution of surface waves, through a modified nonlinear dispersion relationship. The resulting expressions of free surface particle locations can then be made numerically efficient by only retaining the most significant contributions to second-order terms, i.e. Stokes drift and mean vertical level. This results in a hybrid model, referred to as the ‘improved choppy wave model’ (ICWM) (with respect to Nouguier et al.’s J. Geophys. Res., vol. 114, 2009, p. C09012), whose performance is numerically assessed for long-crested waves, both periodic and irregular. To do so, ICWM results are compared to those of models based on a high-order spectral method and classical second-order Lagrangian expansions. For irregular waves, two generic types of narrow- and broad-banded wave spectra are considered, for which ICWM is shown to significantly improve wave forecast accuracy as compared to other Lagrangian models; hence, ICWM is well suited to providing accurate and efficient short-term ocean wave forecast (e.g. over a few peak periods). This aspect will be the object of future work.
Emerging evidence suggests that diet and renal function are related. Little is known, however, about the association of consumption of whole grains, fruit and vegetables with urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) and changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We investigated this in a population-based cohort aged 26–65 years. Data were from 3787 participants from the Doetinchem cohort study, who were examined ≥3 times, 5 years apart. Consumption of food groups was assessed at each round with a validated FFQ. GFR was estimated at each round from routinely measured cystatin C and creatinine using the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) equation. ACR was measured at the last round. Generalised estimated equation models were performed to examine associations with changes in eGFR. Linear regression was used to examine associations with ACR. Adjustments were made for covariates related to lifestyle, biological factors and diet. Mean baseline eGFR was 104·5 (sd 13·7) and mean annual decline was −0·95 (sd 0·67) ml/min per 1·73 m2 over a 15-year follow-up. A trend was observed towards slightly less annual decline in eGFR among those with higher consumption of whole grains (P=0·06). This association, however, was attenuated and no longer significant in multivariate models (P=0·29). Consumption of fruit and vegetables was not associated with changes in eGFR and urinary ACR. In conclusion, consumption of whole grains, fruit and vegetables is not associated with changes in eGFR and mean ACR. As this was the first longitudinal study into this association in the general population, and as results are only partially in line with related studies, further research is recommended.
S stars are s-process and C-enriched (0.5<C/O<1) red giants. Their abundances can be determined thanks to a new grid of MARCS model atmospheres covering their whole parameter range. Detailed abundance determinations in intrinsic S stars (TP-AGB) and extrinsic S stars (binary masqueraders) can provide strong constraints on the s-process nucleosynthesis: in particular, the s-process temperature can be determined using zirconium and niobium abundances, independently of stellar evolution models. Synthetic spectra of dwarf S stars have been computed and will be sought for in spectroscopic survey data, constraining their luminosity thanks to Gaia parallaxes.
The article reports the growth stop phenomenon, which was documented only for baobabs, i.e. for trees belonging to the Adansonia genus. The identification of growth stop was enabled by radiocarbon dating, which allows a complex investigation of samples collected from the trunk/stems of baobabs. In several cases, the outermost rings of baobabs, which were close to the bark, were found to be old, with ages of several hundreds of years, instead of being very young. Dating results of samples collected from six baobabs are presented. For multistemmed baobabs, the growth stop may occur only for one or several stems. We identified four factors that may induce the growth stop: (i) stress determined by severe climate conditions, (ii) old age, (iii) the need to keep a stable internal architecture, and (iv) the collapse of stems that survive this trauma. Baobabs and their stems affected by growth stop may survive for several centuries, by continuing to produce leaves, flowers, and fruits. This phenomenon was associated with the capacity of baobabs to store large amounts of water in their trunks/stems in the rainy season. This reservoir of water is used during the dry season and allows the trees to survive prolonged drought periods.