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Three amplification mechanisms present in turbulent jets, namely lift-up, Kelvin–Helmholtz and Orr, are characterized via global resolvent analysis and spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) over a range of Mach numbers. The lift-up mechanism was recently identified in turbulent jets via local analysis by Nogueira et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 873, 2019, pp. 211–237) at low Strouhal number (
) and non-zero azimuthal wavenumbers (
). In these limits, a global SPOD analysis of data from high-fidelity simulations reveals streamwise vortices and streaks similar to those found in turbulent wall-bounded flows. These structures are in qualitative agreement with the global resolvent analysis, which shows that they are a response to upstream forcing of streamwise vorticity near the nozzle exit. Analysis of mode shapes, component-wise amplitudes and sensitivity analysis distinguishes the three mechanisms and the regions of frequency–wavenumber space where each dominates, finding lift-up to be dominant as
. Finally, SPOD and resolvent analyses of localized regions show that the lift-up mechanism is present throughout the jet, with a dominant azimuthal wavenumber inversely proportional to streamwise distance from the nozzle, with streaks of azimuthal wavenumber exceeding five near the nozzle, and wavenumbers one and two most energetic far downstream of the potential core.
Marine n-3 PUFA exert beneficial effects that might inhibit atherosclerosis and reduce vascular disease. Previous studies have, however, reported conflicting results and here we have summarised the early history and the most recent findings from follow-up studies and randomised clinical trials investigating marine n-3 PUFA in relation to the risk of atherosclerotic CVD. Most follow-up studies have suggested that the intake of marine n-3 PUFA may be associated with a lower risk of CVD. Recent studies have also shown that it is important to focus on substitution issues and dietary patterns. Further, the use of gold standard biomarkers of fatty acid exposure such as adipose tissue should be encouraged. Findings from clinical supplemental trials have shown conflicting results and findings from previous meta-analyses and guidelines have generally not supported the use of fish oil supplements for the prevention of CVD. However, a recent meta-analysis including three recent large clinical trials with fish oil supplements reported a moderate beneficial effect on cardiovascular endpoints. Interestingly, results from a large clinical trial (REDUCE-IT) have suggested that supplementation with a high dose of purified EPA ethyl ester for 4⋅9 years significantly and markedly reduced the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with CVD and mild hypertriglyceridaemia; findings that need to be confirmed. While it seems appropriate to recommend consumption of fish, particular fatty fish for prevention of CVD, an effect of fish oil supplements is probably at best marginal perhaps apart from patients with hypertriglyceridaemia.
Background: Hereditary transthyretin-mediated (hATTR) amyloidosis is a multi-systemic, heterogenous, life-threatening disease. Patisiran resulted in significant improvement in neuropathy and QoL at 18-months compared to placebo, and was generally well-tolerated in the Phase 3 APOLLO study. Methods: Multi-center, OLE study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term patisiran dosing for ≤ 5 years in hATTR amyloidosis patients with polyneuropathy who have completed the APOLLO study (NCT02510261). Endpoints include safety, tolerability and long-term efficacy of patisiran. Measures of clinical benefit are the same endpoints used in APOLLO including changes in mNIS+7 composite neuropathy impairment score and QoL (Norfolk QoL-DN) Results: As of December 2017, 184 of 186 (99%) patients who completed APOLLO and 25 patients from the Ph 2 OLE study enrolled in the Global OLE study. Baseline data for 211(APOLLO/placebo, n=49; APOLLO/patisiran, n=137 and patisiran Ph 2 OLE, n=25) patients included: median age 61 years (26-84); 74% males; 46% V30M. Interim safety data and 12-month efficacy results will be presented. Conclusions: The global OLE study includes a diverse population of hATTR amyloidosis patients. Interim data will include the long-term safety and maintenance of effect in patients continuing on patisiran, as well as the impact of treatment with patisiran on patients previously treated with placebo.
Route planning and airspace sectorisation are two central tasks in air traffic management.
Traditionally, the routing and sectorisation problems were considered separately, with aircraft trajectories serving as input to the sectorisation problem and, reciprocally, sectors being part of the input to the path finding algorithms.
In this paper we propose a simultaneous design of routes and sectors for a transition airspace. We compare two approaches for this integrated design: one based on mixed integer programming, and one Voronoi-based model that separates potential “hotspots” of controller activity resulting from the terminal routes.
We apply our two approaches to the design of Stockholm Terminal Maneuvering Area.
We present a conditional space–time proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) formulation that is tailored to the eduction of the average, rare or intermittent events from an ensemble of realizations of a fluid process. By construction, the resulting spatio-temporal modes are coherent in space and over a predefined finite time horizon, and optimally capture the variance, or energy of the ensemble. For the example of intermittent acoustic radiation from a turbulent jet, we introduce a conditional expectation operator that focuses on the loudest events, as measured by a pressure probe in the far field and contained in the tail of the pressure signal’s probability distribution. Applied to high-fidelity simulation data, the method identifies a statistically significant ‘prototype’, or average acoustic burst event that is tracked over time. Most notably, the burst event can be traced back to its precursor, which opens up the possibility of prediction of an imminent burst. We furthermore investigate the mechanism underlying the prototypical burst event using linear stability theory and find that its structure and evolution are accurately predicted by optimal transient growth theory. The jet-noise problem demonstrates that the conditional space–time POD formulation applies even for systems with probability distributions that are not heavy-tailed, i.e. for systems in which events overlap and occur in rapid succession.
Laser-based compact MeV X-ray sources are useful for a variety of applications such as radiography and active interrogation of nuclear materials. MeV X rays are typically generated by impinging the intense laser onto ~mm-thick high-Z foil. Here, we have characterized such a MeV X-ray source from 120 TW (80 J, 650 fs) laser interaction with a 1 mm-thick tantalum foil. Our measurements show X-ray temperature of 2.5 MeV, flux of 3 × 1012 photons/sr/shot, beam divergence of ~0.1 sr, conversion efficiency of ~1%, that is, ~1 J of MeV X rays out of 80 J incident laser, and source size of 80 m. Our measurement also shows that MeV X-ray yield and temperature is largely insensitive to nanosecond laser contrasts up to 10−5. Also, preliminary measurements of similar MeV X-ray source using a double-foil scheme, where the laser-driven hot electrons from a thin foil undergoing relativistic transparency impinging onto a second high-Z converter foil separated by 50–400 m, show MeV X-ray yield more than an order of magnitude lower compared with the single-foil results.