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In many countries, compacted bentonite is a candidate engineering barrier material for safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) set up an in situ experiment (the ABM project) to compare the stability of different bentonites under the conditions of exposure to an iron source and to elevated temperature (up to 130°C) at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden. Results for the Japanese bentonite (Kunigel V1) are summarized in the present study.
Mineralogical investigation using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) suggested no transformation of smectite or neoformed clay phases. However, a distinct change in exchangeable cations of smectite was indicated (i.e. from Na type to Fe type and/or Ca type) in the bentonite in the vicinity of the steel heater.
Measurements of hydraulic conductivity and swelling properties suggest that no significant changes occurred in the bentonite even in the vicinity of the steel heater. This is attributed to the limited portion of the bentonite affected by the iron–bentonite interactions and the incomplete ion-exchange reactions. The methylene blue cation exchange capacity and the determination of the exchangeable cations showed that the lateral distribution for these parameters was constant. However, the total exchangeable cation population has changed significantly compared to the initial sample.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
To examine the non-linear oscillation and period change of white dwarf variables, ZZ Psc is discussed observationally. As a result of data reduction we found two major periods, 680 seconds and 860 seconds, but could not find chaotic behavior of ZZ Psc.
In situ measurements were carried out to quantify montmorillonite dissolution rates at a compaction pressure ranging from 0.04 to 10.00 MPa and temperature of 70°C in 0.3 M NaOH solution (pH 12.1 at 70°C) using vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) and an auto-compaction cell. Ex situ measurements of the reacted samples using atomic force microscopy (AFM) were performed to quantify the ratio of edge surface area (ESA) to total surface area (TSA) (XESA = ESA/TSA). Accordingly, the actual ESA for the montmorillonite examined by in situ VSI could be estimated. The XESA value increases as a function of run duration or compaction pressure. At atmospheric pressure, XESA is approximately 0.0054 and converges to ∼0.0107 at 10 MPa, An expression that relates reactive surface area and montmorillonite compaction (XESA/XESA initial = kXESA, k: variable factor) is kXESA = 1.0 + 0.64628 P0.1527 where P is in MPa. Using the calculated XESA, dissolution rates from the in situ VSI measurements are obtained. The early dissolution (<1500 min) at less compaction pressure tends to show faster rates (>1.0 × 10-11 mol/m2/s) than that at higher compaction pressure. The rates after >1500 min are slower, with values of less than 3×6 10-12 mol/m2/s, but there is no significant dependency on the density in the range from 1.0 to 1.7 Mg/m3. These observed rates for compacted montmorillonite are two-orders of magnitude slower (2.63×10-13 mol/m2/s) than dissolution rates in the suspended state.
We present VLBI maps of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission in 32 sources obtained using the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) and the East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN). All of the observed sources provide new VLBI maps, and the spatial morphologies have been classified into five categories similar to the results obtained from European VLBI Network observations (Bartkiewicz et al. 2009). The 32 methanol sources are being monitored to measure the relative proper motions of the methanol maser spots.
The effect of in‐situ cooling conditions on surface roughness and superconducting properties have been studied. Bi‐Sr‐Ca‐Cu‐0 thin films were grown in‐situ on (100) MgO substrates at 700°C by activated reactive co‐evaporation. The films cool‐down in 760 Torr oxygen showed a transition temperature (Tc(onset)) of 100 K and zero resistance temperature (Tc (zero)) of 65 K. Smooth surface was obtained for the sample cooled‐down in oxygen plasma.
We report an essentially complete characterization of energies and relaxation processes of the lowest seven electronic states of the N-V (nitrogen-vacancy) center in diamond using several different nonlinear laser spectroscopie techniques. We have also applied ultrafast optical techniques to measure dielectric properties of CVD and bulk diamond in the 0.3–1.6 THz range for the first time.
A parameter which determine internal stress of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) prepared by plasma CVD method has been investigated to prevent a peeling off or crack forming problem. It is clarified that the internal stress changes from tension to compression as a function of supplied rf power density during deposition process. Supplied rf power density is closely connected to H o and SiH* optical emission intensity ratio (H α /SiH* ) of CVD plasma. Ve find that the internal stress can be reduced remarkably by controlling this ratio to 0.3. This H α/SiH* parameter has a superiority that the internal stress can be in situ controlled.
In order to clarify the correlations between recording performances and fabrication processes in magneto-optical recording media, magnetic switching processes of TbFeCo films are studied. For a trilayer structure, with a thick magnetic layer, carrier to noise ratio(CNR) indicates maximum value for the composition with compensation temperature(Tcomp) being near room temperature. In a quadrilayer structure, on the other hand, where a thinner magnetic layer and Al reflector are employed, CNR indicates maximum vaiue for transition-metal(TM) rich composition with iower coercive force. Studies are made to interpret the results In terms of the difference in magnetic properties.
Time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) characteristics and TEM observation of ultra-thin silicon dioxide with the polysilicon gate after post-annealing and oxidation at 1000-1100 °C are discussed. The high temperature post-annealing decreases the TDDB characteristics of ultra-thin oxide with polysilicon gate. The charge to breakdown is reduced drastically with increasing the annealing temperature and annealing time. The dielectric breakdown reliability degradation of ultra-thin tunneling oxide by the post-annealing can be explained as the partial oxide thinning and electric field concentration due to the increase of roughness at the polysilicon gate/ultra-thin tunneling oxide interface. This increase of roughness is due to the grain growth of polysilicon gate and viscous flow of oxide, which are enhanced with increasing the annealing temperature and time.
Ultrathin films of perovskite PbTiO3, 10–100nm thick, were epitaxially grown on miscut (001)SrTiO3 substrate by rf-magnetron sputtering at 600°C. The electron microscope and high resolution x-ray diffraction analysis suggested the evidence of epitaxial growth of (001)PbTiO3/(001)SrTiO3 with three dimensional crystal orientation. The stoichiometric film shows extremely smooth surface with the surface roughness less than 3nm. Deposition on a miscut substrate under stoichiometric conditions is essential to make continuous thin films of single crystal perovskite PbTiO3.
Multiple ion-implanted GaN/AlGaN/GaN high electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) and preciously controlled ion-implanted resistors integrated on silicon substrate are reported. Using ion implantation into source/drain (S/D) regions, the performances were significantly improved. On-resistance reduced from 10.3 to 3.5 Ω•mm. Saturation drain current and maximum transconductance increased from 390 to 650 mA/mm and from 130 to 230 mS/mm. Measured transfer curve shows that I/O gain of 4.5 can be obtained at Vdd = 10 V.
Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) has been used to study far infrared absorption spectra of chloroform confined within nanoporous glasses of various pore sizes. Intermolecular interactions and dynamics in the confined system are discussed.
The sheet resistance and sheet carrier concentration for Si ion implanted GaN have been investigated as a function of Si ion dosages and ion's energy using van der Pauw method and Hall effect measurement. Si ion implanted GaN is annealed at 1200 °C for 10 sec in N2 gas flow with 50 nm-thick SiNx cap layer to avoid dissociation of GaN. For Si ion energy of 30 keV, the sheet resistance is decreased from 103 to 56 ohm/sq. for the dose ranging from 1 × 1014 to 2 × 1015/cm2. For the Si dose larger than 2 × 1015/cm2, the sheet carrier concentration is saturated around 1 ×s 1015/cm2. Si ion implanted GaN with energy of 50, 80, and 120 keV at a dose of 2 × 1015/cm2 also reveal the sheet carrier concentration of about 1 × 1015/cm2 with the decrease of electron mobility. It is suggested that the implanted Si donors are strongly compensated by the residual implantation-induced defects.
In this report, we have demonstrated enhancement-mode n-channel GaN MOSFETs on silicon (111) substrates. We observe a high field-effect mobility of 115 cm2/Vs, the best report for GaN MOSFET fabricated on a silicon substrate to our knowledge. The threshold voltage was estimated to be +2.7 V, and the maximum operation current was over 3.5 A. This value is the largest which have ever been reports.
We fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorods with thin diameter by two-step chemical vapor deposition method combined with laser ablation of a sinterd ZnO target. Firstly, well-aligned ZnO nanorods with thick diameter of about 110 nm are grown on an n-Si (111) wafer. Next, a thin ZnO nanorod with about 30 nm diameter is grown on the center of the flat tip of each well-aligned and thick ZnO nanorod by controlling a flow rate of oxygen. Although thick ZnO nanorods do not emit a recognizable field emission current, thin ZnO nanorods with 1500 nm length show a field emission current of 500 μA under an electric field of 31 V/μm.
Ti/Al ohmic contact with an extremely low specific contact resistance has been formed by the deposition of Ti and Al films on Si+ lanted GaN. The ohmic contact formed by annealing at 600 o C of Ti film with a thickness of 50 nm and Al film with a thickness of 200 nm reveals the good smooth surface and uniform structure as compare to those of contacts formed above 700 °C, which is correlated to whether the Al-Ti alloy is melted during the annealing of ohmic contact or not. The specific contact resistance of 2 × 10-6Ω-cm2 is obtained for Si+ implanted GaN with a dose of 5 × 1013 cm-2. As Si ion dose increases to 5 × 1014 /cm2, the specific contact resistance is reduced to 2 × 10-8 Ω-cm2. It is revealed that the selective doping at high impurity concentration in the surface region by Si+ implantation is useful to reduce the contact resistance for Ti/Al contact to GaN.