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The Act on medical care and treatment for insane or quasi-insane person who have caused serious incidents in Japan went into effect in July, 2005. It is critical to understand the current situation and the issue concerning medical care in this legal system for revision of the Act five years later. Therefore, this research aims to evaluate and analyze the information comprehensively collected from designated inpatient medical institutions and outpatient medical institutions from a technical standpoint.
The subjects of this research are 50 cases from designated inpatient medical institutions and 4 cases from designated outpatient medical institutions who have been registered as the subject of treatment under the Act. Static information at the time of the treatment starts and dynamic information, such as treatment evaluation usually created periodically in routine work, were the specific documentation for this research. From the information, variables required for analysis of improvement of medical care and operational situation of the Act were collected through the use of a database system.
Results and Conclusion
Since the Act was enacted last year, this one year research remains as a short term monitoring targeting a few cases. In this report, evaluation and progress of treatment of the subject will be presented with the information relevant to the mental illness and the judicial system exposed by collected various kinds of data. From this information, we outline the current situation and issues in this legal system and shows the usability of the result from this monitoring research.
The physics of compressible turbulence in high energy density (HED) plasmas is an unchartered experimental area. Simulations of compressible and radiative flows relevant for astrophysics rely mainly on subscale parameters. Therefore, we plan to perform turbulent hydrodynamics experiments in HED plasmas (TurboHEDP) in order to improve our understanding of such important phenomena for interest in both communities: laser plasma physics and astrophysics. We will focus on the physics of supernovae remnants which are complex structures subject to fluid instabilities such as the Rayleigh–Taylor and Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities. The advent of megajoule laser facilities, like the National Ignition Facility and the Laser Megajoule, creates novel opportunities in laboratory astrophysics, as it provides unique platforms to study turbulent mixing flows in HED plasmas. Indeed, the physics requires accelerating targets over larger distances and longer time periods than previously achieved. In a preparatory phase, scaling from experiments at lower laser energies is used to guarantee the performance of future MJ experiments. This subscale experiments allow us to develop experimental skills and numerical tools in this new field of research, and are stepping stones to achieve our objectives on larger laser facilities. We review first in this paper recent advances in high energy density experiments devoted to laboratory astrophysics. Then we describe the necessary steps forward to commission an experimental platform devoted to turbulent hydrodynamics on a megajoule laser facility. Recent novel experimental results acquired on LULI2000, as well as supporting radiative hydrodynamics simulations, are presented. Together with the development of LiF detectors as transformative X-ray diagnostics, these preliminary results are promising on the way to achieve micrometric spatial resolution in turbulent HED physics experiments in the near future.
In this paper, we present a model characterizing the interaction of a radiative shock (RS) with a solid material, as described in a recent paper (Koenig et al., Phys. Plasmas, 24, 082707 (2017)), the new model is then related to recent experiments performed on the GEKKO XII laser facility. The RS generated in a xenon gas cell propagates towards a solid obstacle that is ablated by radiation coming from the shock front and the radiative precursor, mimicking processes occurring in astrophysical phenomena. The model presented here calculates the dynamics of the obstacle expansion, which depends on several parameters, notably the geometry and the temperature of the shock. All parameters required for the model have been obtained from experiments. Good agreement between experimental data and the model is found when spherical geometry is taken into account. As a consequence, this model is a useful and easy tool to infer parameters from experimental data (such as the shock temperature), and also to design future experiments.
A new target design is presented to model high-energy radiative accretion shocks in polars. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained on the GEKKO XII laser facility for the POLAR project. The experimental results are compared with 2D FCI2 simulations to characterize the dynamics and the structure of plasma flow before and after the collision. The good agreement between simulations and experimental data confirms the formation of a reverse shock where cooling losses start modifying the post-shock region. With the multi-material structure of the target, a hydrodynamic collimation is exhibited and a radiative structure coupled with the reverse shock is highlighted in both experimental data and simulations. The flexibility of the laser energy produced on GEKKO XII allowed us to produce high-velocity flows and study new and interesting radiation hydrodynamic regimes between those obtained on the LULI2000 and Orion laser facilities.
Globally, the Cerrado is the most diverse savanna in terms of plant species, as well as one of the most threatened as the result of human impact; it is therefore considered a priority area for conservation. Some areas of the Cerrado have still not been subject to botanical collections and detailed studies, the Jalapão region being one of these. We describe four recently rediscovered species previously known only from type specimens collected at least 160 years ago: Hyptis caduca Epling (Lamiaceae), Duguetia rotundifolia R.E.Fr. (Annonaceae), Diospyros ovalis Hiern (Ebenaceae) and Rhabdodendron gardnerianum (Benth.) Sandwith (Rhabdodendraceae). Comments on their ecology, conservation status and occurrence are provided, together with a distribution map. New morphological data have been recorded, and all species are considered to be under some degree of threat. These rediscoveries highlight the importance of further fieldwork in poorly sampled and highly biodiverse regions such as Jalapão and neighbouring areas, as well as the urgent need for conservation of the highly threatened Cerrado biome.
The superbubble (SB) 30 Dor C with the strong non-thermal X-ray emission is one of the best targets for study of the cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration. We investigated X-ray spectral properties of the SB with a high spatial resolution of ~10 pc. Consequently, the spectra in the east regions can be described with a combination of absorbed thermal and non-thermal models while the spectra in the west regions can be fitted with an absorbed non-thermal model. We found that the observed photon index and intensity in 2-10 keV show variations of 2.0-3.5 and (0.6-8.0) × 10−7 erg s−1 cm−2 str−1, respectively. The results are possibly caused by the spatial variation of the CR acceleration efficiency and/or the circumstellar environment.
We formulate a conjecture which generalizes Darmon’s ‘refined class number formula’. We discuss relations between our conjecture and the equivariant leading term conjecture of Burns. As an application, we give another proof of the ‘except
-part’ of Darmon’s conjecture, which was first proved by Mazur and Rubin.
This study analysed phytogeographic patterns of several Atlantic Forest areas in southeastern Brazil, including forest areas in the Espinhaço Range, to identify species with congruent distribution patterns and possible environmental factors that might influence these. A total of 54 floristic surveys, predominantly from semideciduous woodland sites but also including some rainforest areas, were compared using UPGMA and DCA methods as well as Jaccard analyses. The former identified four main groupings: group 1 included forests located throughout the Espinhaço Range; group 2 was formed by forest areas in the Rio Jequitinhonha basin; group 3 was formed by three distinct subgroups, one (3.1) predominantly of forest areas pertaining to the Alto Rio Grande basin, another (3.2) of upland forests of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, and a third subgroup (3.3) of upland forests of the Serra da Mantiqueira; and group 4 encompassed forest areas in the Rio Doce, Rio Paraíba do Sul, Rio Itanhém and Rio Itapemirim basins. The prevailing relief in these basins has influenced rainfall and seasonality in these areas which, in turn, have exerted a major influence on the composition of the semideciduous forests. Geographic proximity and altitude, although important factors, play a minor role in the phytogeographic patterns analysed. Despite the floristic heterogeneity of the Espinhaço Range forests, there are physiognomic and floristic affinities among the forests within the campos rupestre vegetation. These are due to the high altitude and features of the soil.
An isotope dilution method using [1-13C]leucine (Leu) infusion together with open-circuit calorimetry was applied to determine the effect of metabolizable protein (MP) intake on rates of plasma Leu turnover and whole body protein synthesis (WBPS) in six heifers. WBPS rate was estimated from rate of plasma Leu turnover and Leu oxidation to carbon dioxide. The experiment consisted of three levels of MP intake and was conducted in a two 3×3 Latin square designs of three 21-day periods. The experimental diet consisted of mixed hay, maize and soybean meal. Dietary MP intake of each dietary treatment was 4·3, 4·5 and 4·9 g/kg BW0·75/day by changing maize and soybean meal weights. Metabolizable energy (ME) intake was similar for all dietary treatments. When plasma α-[1-13C]keto-isocaproic acid enrichments were used as markers indicating intracellular Leu enrichments, plasma Leu turnover rate (LeuTR) increased (P=0·012) and WBPS tended to increase (P=0·091) as MP intake increased. In contrast, plasma LeuTR and WBPS were not influenced if plasma [1-13C]Leu was taken to indicate intracellular Leu enrichments. Total and plasma Leu oxidation rates did not change but intracellular Leu oxidation increased (P=0·044) with increasing MP intake. In heifers, it is suggested that rates of plasma Leu turnover and WBPS are influenced by dietary MP intake, independent of ME intake, although the change in MP intake was relatively small.
Objective: Despite numerous clinical trials, it is unknown whether ethnicity affects treatment response to cognitive enhancers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is convincing evidence of ethnic and genetic variability in drug metabolism. This article reviews the available data on ethnicity in clinical trials for AD to answer two questions: (1) what are the challenges to diagnose and treat AD across different ethnic groups, and (2) are there differences in response to pharmacologic interventions for AD across these different ethnic groups?
Method: Available data from Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study (ADCS) randomized controlled clinical trials and from randomized controlled industry-sponsored trials for four cognitive enhancers (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine and sabeluzole) were pooled to assess the numbers of non-Caucasian participants.
Results: The participation of ethnic minority subjects in clinical trials for AD was dependent on the funding source, although Caucasian participants were over-represented and non-Caucasian participants were under-represented in the clinical trials. Because of the low participation rate of ethnic minorities, there were insufficient data to assess any differences in treatment outcome among different ethnic groups. Strategies to improve diversity in clinical trials are discussed.
Conclusion: Greater participation of ethnically diverse participants in clinical trials for AD would generate additional information on possible differences in metabolism, treatment response, adverse events to therapeutic agents, and could foster the investigation of genetic variability among ethnic groups.
The Japanese quarantine system monitors incoming passengers to detect imported pathogens at international airports. At one airport, we found that 74% of 13315 travellers returning with diarrhoea had visited only one country before entering Japan. On the basis of our results, we hypothesized that the international distribution and potential source of bacterial strains could be inferred by analysing strains isolated from travellers returning to Japan. In order to demonstrate the potential for this system, we randomly selected five Shigella sonnei strains and examined their restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns. One set of strains appeared to be closely related, while three sets, isolated from travellers who visited different countries were possibly related. These results suggest that international distributions and potential sources of S. sonnei may be inferred by monitoring isolates from passengers arriving at a Japanese quarantine station.
A 2-dimensional Doppler coronagraph “NOGIS” (NOrikura Green-line Imaging System) at the Norikura Solar Observatory, NAOJ, is a unique imaging system that can provide both intensity and Doppler velocity of 2 MK plasma from the green coronal line emission $\lambda$5303 Å of Fe xiv. We present the first detection of a CME onset by NOGIS. The event was originally induced by a C9.1 confined flare that occurred on 2003 June 1 at an active region NOAA $\#$10365 near the limb. This flare triggered a filament eruption in AR 10365, which later evolved into a partial halo CME as well as an M6.5 flare at the same AR 10365 on 2003 June 2. The CME originated in a complex of two neighboring magnetic flux systems across the solar equator: AR 10365 and a bundle of face-on tall coronal loops. NOGIS observed i) a density enhancement in between the two flux systems in the early phase, ii) a blue-shifted bubble and jet that later appeared as (a part of) the CME, and iii) a red-shifted wave that triggered a periodic fluctuations in Doppler shifts in the face-on loops. These features are crucial to understand unsolved problems on a CME initiation (e.g., mass supply, magnetic configuration, and trigger mechanism) and on coronal loop oscillations (e.g., trigger and damping mechanisms). We stress a possibility that interaction between separatrices of the two flux systems played a key role on our event.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
The electric field dependence and anisotropy of the impact ionization coefficients of 4H-SiC are investigated by means of the avalanche breakdown behavior of p+n diodes. The breakdown voltages as a function of doping density and the multiplication factors of a leakage current are obtained using p+n diode fabricated on (0001) and (1120) 4H-SiC epitaxial wafers. The obtained impact ionization coefficients show large anisotropy; the breakdown voltage of a p+n diode on (1120) wafer is 60% of that on (0001) wafer. We have shown that anisotropy of the impact ionization coefficients is attributable to the anisotropy of saturation velocity originated from the electronic structure of 4H-SiC.
The survey of Vibrio cholerae O1 in marine area was carried out in the Port of Osaka, Japan in 1987–2001, and 51 V. cholerae O1 strains were isolated. All strains were identified to be of El Tor biotype, Ogawa serotype and classic Ubon Kappa-phage type, and were cholera toxin (CT)-negative and CT gene-negative. In order to clarify certain ecological aspects of V. cholerae O1 in the marine environment of the temperate zone, we performed molecular analysis of the isolated strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with NotI and SfiI restriction enzymes. We found the indistinguishable strains by DNA analysis using PFGE with strains passed for 1 year, and also found the closely related strains with that passed for 3 and 12 years. Those results indicated that V. cholerae O1 can survive over one winter at least, and that it survives in marine water for a long time by undergoing continuous mutation.
An experiment combining a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp approach and an isotope dilution method determined the effects of cold exposure and time relative to feeding on blood glucose metabolism in four sheep. The sheep, fed 20 g/kg body-weight (BW) of lucerne hay cubes and 5 g/kg BW of maize-based concentrates once daily, were exposed in turn to a thermoneutral environment (20 °C) and a cold environment (0 °C) for 20 days. The combined experiments were performed at four different times relative to feeding, i.e. 3 to 2 h, 2 to 1 h and 1 to 0 h before, and 1 to 2 h after the initiation of feeding for the basal periods, and 1 to 0 h before, and 0 to 1 h, 1 to 2 h and 3 to 4 h after the initiation of feeding for the glucose clamp periods in both environments. [U-13C]Glucose was continuously infused for 6 h after a priming injection. Insulin was continuously infused at 6·0 mU/kg BW per min for 2 h, which corresponded to the last 2 h of the [U-13C]glucose infusion. Blood glucose concentrations were maintained euglycaemic during the insulin infusion by concomitant variable glucose infusion. Blood glucose turnover rate (GTR) during the basal period was enhanced by cold exposure (P=0·01) and feeding (P=0·04). Blood GTR increased (P<0·01) with the glucose clamp. During the glucose clamp, blood GTR and glucose infusion rate (GIR) were greater (P=0·003 and P=0·001, respectively) during cold exposure than in the thermoneutral environment. Time relative to feeding influenced (P=0·003) the GIR, whereas changes in blood GTR and endogenous glucose production rate were not significant. No significant cold×feeding interaction was observed in these variables. It was suggested that, in sheep, glucose metabolism was enhanced by cold exposure and the glucose clamp. It was probable that blood glucose metabolism during the glucose clamp was influenced by cold exposure and feeding, but the combined effect of cold exposure and feeding was not significant.
Previous studies of depression after stroke have reported widely variable findings, possibly due to differences between studies in patient characteristics and methods for the assessment of depression, small sample sizes, and the failure to examine stroke-free reference groups to determine the base rate of depression in the general population. In an effort to address certain of those methodologic issues and further investigate the frequency and clinical determinants of depression after stroke, we administered the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (SIGH–D) and neurological, neuropsychological, and functional assessments to 421 patients (age = 71.5 ± 8.0 years) 3 months after ischemic stroke and 249 stroke-free control subjects (age = 70.8 ± 6.7 years). We required a SIGH–D total score > 11 for the identification of depression. We found that depression was less frequent (47/421 patients, or 11.2%, and 13/249 control subjects, or 5.2%), less severe, and less persistent in our stroke cohort than previously reported, possibly due to the underrepresentation of patients with a premorbid history of affective illness. Depression was associated with more severe stroke, particularly in vascular territories that supply limbic structures; dementia; and female sex. SIGH–D item analyses suggested that a reliance on nonsomatic rather than somatic symptoms would result in the most accurate diagnoses of depression after ischemic stroke. (JINS, 2003, 9, 429–439.)
In order to clarify the failure to isolate Shigella spp. by direct plating, we compared frequencies of Shigella spp. isolation by direct plating and by plating after enrichment in selenite broth. A total 67 strains were isolated in this study. The strains of 38 (56·7%) were isolated only by direct plating, and 25 (37·3%) strains were isolated by both direct plating and after enrichment. Four strains (6·0%) were isolated after enrichment but not by direct plating. Since 6% of isolated Shigella spp. were not isolated by direct plating, we recommend that direct plating and additional isolations from selenite broth should be performed. The significance concerning reduction of concentration of sodium selenite in enrichment broth is discussed.