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We report Hα imaging observations of nearby galaxies with the Kiso Schmidt telescope. For spiral galaxy NGC 628, we found no clear correlation between Hα and CO intensities, and we discuss the star formation efficiency of this galaxy. No nuclear Hα emission in this galaxy was detected. This is consistent with spectroscopic observations which indicate that the nuclear region is in the post starburst phase. We also describe the Hα image of Hickson's compact group 92 in which diffuse emission is detected extending within the group system.
Zizina emelina (de l'Orza) is listed on Japan's Red Data List as an endangered species because of loss of its principal food plant and habitat. We compared parts of the mitochondrial and nuclear genes of this species to investigate the level of genetic differentiation among the 14 extant populations. We also examined infection of the butterfly with the bacterium Wolbachia to clarify the bacterium's effects on the host population's genetic structure. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses revealed that haplotype composition differed significantly among most of the populations, and the fixation index FST was positively correlated with geographic distance. In addition, we found three strains of Wolbachia, one of which was a male killer; these strains were prevalent in several populations. There was linkage between some host mitochondrial haplotypes and the three Wolbachia strains, although no significant differences were found in a comparison of host mitochondrial genetic diversity with nuclear genetic diversity in Wolbachia-infected or -uninfected populations. These genetic analyses and Wolbachia infection findings show that Z. emelina has little migratory activity and that little gene flow occurs among the current populations.
Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) on board International Space Station is capable of
observing gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and sending notices of GRBs or other transient events,
using real time connection to the ground. MAXI observed 32 GRBs or short X-ray transients
as of the end of September 2012. Among them, eleven events were simultaneously detected by
other satellites. The observed rate of the MAXI GRBs is about one event per month. This
rate is comparable to a past observation with larger effective area and larger field of
view. The fact indicates that MAXI has better sensitivity to observe GRBs because of low
background. The distribution of the spectral hardness of MAXI GRBs is similar to the
results of a past instrument, which is sensitive to similar energy range.
This study examined surface modification of solder resist and dry film resist using 60 Hz nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma with O2/N2 mixing gas. Results show that the plasma discharge condition at O2/N2 mixing ratio of 0.1% was the best for surface modification for both materials, and the surfaces were modified sufficiently at 0.45 m/min package substrate transportation speed. From the plasma diagnostics by Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Spectroscopy (VUVAS) and Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES), it was found that the behaviors of the oxygen radical density and NO-γ emission intensity correlate strongly with surface modification. The extremely high oxygen radical density around 4.7 × 1013 cm-3 was obtained at O2/N2 mixing ratio of 0.1%. The electron density was 2.5 × 1015 cm-3 that is two digits more than that of the conventional atmospheric pressure plasma such as Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD). The solder resist surface with the plasma treatment was analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and it was clarified that material surface was modified by hydrophilic group generation owing polymer chain oxidation with oxygen radical.
Disaster preparedness is one of the national priorities. In Japan, disaster medicine is defined as a part of the national medical plan initiated by Ministry of Health, Welfare and Labor. The Japan Medical Association is the largest professional physicians' group in Japan, and has contributed to all kinds of disaster relief work regionally and nation-wide for years. Based on past successes, the Japan Medical Association proposes a new disaster action plan named Japan Medical Association Team (JMAT). The primary mission of JMAT is to deploy to the disaster scene requested and work for disaster relief. JMAT covers the acute to sub-acute phase of disaster response, and also collaborate with other agencies. In the preparation and mitigation phases, the Japan Medical Association work for establishing mutual disaster aid partnerships, disaster plans, networks with other agencies, team building, disaster medicine training and education, etc. In Japan, the Disaster Medical Assistant Team (DMAT) has been established based on the experience of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake, when lots of preventable trauma deaths occurred because of delayed medical response. The mission of DMAT is to deploy to the scene immediately and triage/transfer the most serious disaster victims outside the scene for advanced medical care. DMAT covers the first 48 hours of disaster response phase, and then JMAT takes charge of the work. JMAT will also respond to chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear disasters, and international humanitarian work. The present issues of establishing JMAT are 1.training and education for Japan Medical Association members, 2.establising cooperation with other agencies, and 3.having presence at the Central Disaster Committee, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan.
Bending tests of Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) nanopillars fabricated by Focused Ion-Beam assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (FIB-CVD) were carried out in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to investigate their mechanical behavior. Special attention was paid on the effect of the specimen size. The nanopillars with nano-sized diameter and micro-sized length were grown using spot irradiation without scanning FIB. The diameter of the nanopillars was changed in the range of 100 ~ 1000 nm by changing the magnitude of defocusing FIB.
In the bending tests, brittle fracture was observed for the nanopillars with diameter of 1000 nm. On the contrary, large deformation without brittle fracture was confirmed in the specimens with diameter of 300 nm. In addition, the pillar recovered its original shape after unloading without any permanent deformation even after the large deformation.
Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis revealed that the pillars had uniform amorphous structures regardless of the diameters if the FIB was defocused during processing. In addition, similar gallium (Ga) content and sp2/sp3 fraction were observed in both specimens. These results indicate that difference in microstructures cannot be the reason for that in mechanical behavior. In other words, it must be caused by the intrinsic size effect on the mechanical properties of DLC fabricated by FIB-CVD process.
Influence of processing condition on mechanical and structural properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) by focused ion-beam chemical vapor deposition (FIB-CVD) method was investigated. The DLC specimens were produced under conditions of varying supplied amount of material gas and probe current of FIB. Volume determination results of DLC structures indicated that a deposition rate was increased with both the amount of gas and the probe current. To evaluation of mechanical property, indentation hardness was measured by a nano-indentation tester. From evaluation of mechanical property, it was found that the indentation hardness was sensitive to the processing condition, showing in the range of 8-13 GPa. The hardness of DLC structures was seemed to be lower when etching process higher contributed for formation process. Crystallographic structure of DLC remained amorphous even though the mechanical properties varied widely. Results of hydrogen concentration measurement indicated that increase of hydrogen concentration might lead to decrease of hardness.
A “0-0 type” multiferroic BaTiO3-NiFe2O4 (BT-NF) composite thin film was prepared on SrRuO3/(La,Sr)MnO3/CeO2/YSZ/Si(001) substrate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Epitaxial growth of the film was confirmed using x-ray pole figure measurements. Cross-sectional TEM observations revealed that the crystal structure and morphology of the BT-NF composite thin film depends on the oxygen pressure during deposition. The film deposited at 1.0×10-2 Torr has smaller grains than that deposited at 1.0×10-1 Torr. The magnetic and ferroelectric properties of BT-NF composite thin film were correlated with the microstructure that was controlled by oxygen pressure during deposition. The film deposited at 1.0×10-2 Torr had paramagnetic properties with less polarization than the film deposited at 1.0×10-1 Torr.
We report an extremely rare case of an organised haematoma arising in the sphenoid sinus.
An 85-year-old woman presented with an expansile soft tissue mass in the left sphenoid sinus, with bony destruction of the sella turcica, which mimicked the extrasellar extension of a pituitary tumour. The tumour was excised using an endoscopic, transsphenoidal approach. Histopathological examination revealed an organised haematoma.
To our knowledge, this is the first report of an organised haematoma arising in the sphenoid sinus. This case indicates that organised haematoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of extensive sphenoid lesions; it also emphasises the importance of correct pre-operative diagnosis for therapeutic planning, as complete surgical resection by an endoscopic approach is curative.
This study aimed to determine the expression of the Cap43 gene in supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and to evaluate any correlation between Cap43 gene expression and tumour-associated macrophage infiltration.
Four human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were cultured (Hep2, KB, Ca9-22 and HSC-3) and expression of the Cap43 gene was analysed by Western blotting. In addition, paraffin-embedded samples of supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and normal supraglottic laryngeal mucosa from 84 patients were analysed immunohistochemically using antibodies to Cap43 and cluster of differentiation 68 glycoprotein. Patients' clinical status was compared with their immunohistochemical results.
All four head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines exhibited Cap43 expression. The Hep2, Ca9-22 and HSC-3 cells showed a markedly higher level of Cap43 protein than the KB cells. A statistically significant difference was found in Cap43 expression, comparing different differentiation levels and comparing different metastasis stages, for supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma. The number of tumour-associated macrophages correlated with expression of Cap43, not only in the tumour area (r = 0.3708, p = 0.0005) but also in the peritumour area (r = 0.2847, p = 0.0087).
In supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, overexpression of the Cap43 gene is associated with tumour differentiation and acts an important suppressive factor in the process of tumour metastasis. The Cap43 gene may be a cancer-specific marker. High expression of the Cap43 gene appeared to correlate with infiltration of tumour-associated macrophages.
This study aimed to clarify the significance of cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein gene expression in human parotid gland tumours.
We retrospectively analysed immunohistochemical staining for cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein in parotid gland tumours.
Cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein was consistently detected in the normal parotid gland. Regarding benign parotid gland tumours, cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein was present in 13 of 18 pleomorphic adenomas, in all Warthin tumours tested (21/21) and in all cases of basal cell adenoma tested (four of four). In contrast, positive staining for cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein was less often observed in malignant parotid tumours. Cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein was present in 11 of 14 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, in two of five acinic cell carcinomas and in two of five adenoid cystic carcinomas.
There was a statistically significantly reduced expression of cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein in malignant parotid gland tumours, compared with benign parotid gland tumours (p < 0.05). These results suggest that a low level of cluster of differentiation 9 glycoprotein expression in parotid gland tumours may be associated with malignancy.
This study reviewed 161 patients with supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma who underwent radical therapy at Kurume University Hospital between 1989 and 2003. The five-year survival rate was 89 per cent in patients with stage III disease and 75 per cent in stage IV patients, thus demonstrating favourable results even for patients with advanced cancer. The five-year local control rate and the laryngeal preservation rate were poor in patients with T3 tumours (being 75 per cent for both), but the overall five-year local control rate for all patients was 86 per cent. Laser surgery plus chemo-radiotherapy was the most frequently used treatment. The local control rates and laryngeal preservation rates were poor in patients with tumour infiltration to the glottis and the laryngeal ventricle. In conclusion, the indications for combination laser therapy for supraglottic carcinoma should in future be extended, and the type and number of chemotherapy courses for this cancer should be further clarified.
This study reviewed 24 cases of parapharyngeal space tumour treated at Kurume University Hospital between 1990 and 2007. Histological diagnoses were generally obtained from the excised tumour (22/24). Seventy-seven per cent of the parapharyngeal space tumours were benign and 23 per cent were malignant. Thirty-eight per cent (eight of 22) of these tumours were pleomorphic adenomas and 23 per cent (five of 22) were schwannomas. A transparotidectomy and transcervical approach were used in 88 per cent (15/17) of benign tumours. A mandibular swing approach was used for one malignant tumour. Post-operative complications were identified in 16 of 22 patients. The most common complication, facial nerve paralysis, was identified in eight patients, and seven of these patients demonstrated first bite syndrome. In consideration of the high incidence of post-operative complications, the surgical approach should therefore be carefully selected when treating patients with parapharyngeal space tumours.
This paper reviews 22 cases of minor salivary gland carcinoma of the oral cavity or oropharynx which were treated at Kurume University Hospital between 1976 and 2005. Minor salivary gland carcinoma was observed in eight of 362 patients with cancer of the oral cavity (2 per cent), and in 14 of 275 patients with cancer of the oropharynx (5 per cent). The five-year and 10-year survival rates of patients with oropharyngeal minor salivary gland carcinoma were 90 per cent. No statistically significant difference was observed between survival rates for oropharyngeal minor salivary gland carcinoma and for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.06). The five- and 10-year survival rates of patients with oral cavity minor salivary gland carcinoma were 75 and 37 per cent, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed between survival rates for oral cavity minor salivary gland carcinoma and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.
Patients' survival results correlated well with the clinical stage of their lesions. A significant difference in survival was observed, comparing stage IV with stages I, II and III (p = 0.04). In contrast, no significant relationship was found between either survival and tumour type or survival and treatment. Adjuvant therapy is recommended for patients with grade III adenoid cystic carcinoma with perineural infiltration or intravascular infiltration.
The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of dendritic cell phenotypic antigens in the cervical lymph nodes of patients with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal carcinoma, and to assess the significance of such antigens in the tumour immune reaction.
Immunohistochemical staining of cervical lymph nodes was performed using antibodies against cell surface markers such as S-100 protein and cluster of differentiation 1a and 83 glycoproteins. Two hundred and seventy-four cervical lymph nodes obtained at surgery from 37 patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma and 31 patients with laryngeal carcinoma were thus evaluated.
The number of dendritic cells positive for each phenotypic antigen was significantly greater in non-metastatic lymph nodes than in metastatic lymph nodes. In the metastatic lymph nodes, cluster of differentiation 1a glycoprotein positive dendritic cells were predominantly detected in the cancer ‘nest’, whereas mature dendritic cells staining for cluster of differentiation 83 glycoprotein were prominent in the peritumour area. In the metastatic lymph nodes, in contrast to the cluster of differentiation 1a glycoprotein positive dendritic cells, the degree of infiltration of cluster of differentiation 83 glycoprotein positive dendritic cells was significantly higher in the peritumour area than in the cancer nest. There was a significant difference in survival status, comparing patients with different degrees of dendritic cell infiltration for each type of phenotypic antigen.
Dendritic cells may play different roles in tumour immunity against hypopharyngeal and laryngeal carcinoma. The phenotypic antigens of dendritic cells may thus constitute important indices with which to predict the prognosis of patients with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal carcinoma.
Legionnaires' disease (LD) is a major cause of severe community-acquired pneumonia but the source and mode of transmission are not always apparent, especially in sporadic cases. We hypothesized that LD can be acquired from the air-conditioning systems of motor cars. Swabs were taken from the evaporator compartments of the air-conditioning system of scrapped cars. Healthy subjects who were mainly employees of regional transportation companies were tested for antibody to Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1–6; they also completed a questionnaire. Legionella species were detected in 11/22 scrapped cars by the loop-mediated isothermal amplification method. The prevalence of microplate agglutination titres ⩾1:32 was significantly higher in subjects who sometimes used car air-conditioning systems. Although we did not prove a direct link between Legionella spp. in the car evaporator and LD, our findings point to a potential risk of car air-conditioning systems in LD, which needs further investigation.